Broad antibacterial spectrum of endophytic fungi isolated from halophyte Suaeda fruticosa in Algeria
The purpose of this work was to isolate and evaluate the antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi isolated from Suaeda fruticosa. Endophytic isolates were identified at the genus level. The genera Fusarium (33.33%), Phoma (26.67%), Penicillium (13.33%), and Aspergillus (13.33%) were more prevalent, while Trichoderma genus (6.67%) was less common. The isolated fungal endophytes were screened for their potential antifungal and antibacterial activities. Most isolates showed different levels of inhibitory activity against at least one of the pathogens. The best inhibition percentages were those obtained by Penicillium sp. 1; 74, 71, 65, and 47% against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis, Fusarium oxysporum f.p. ciccri, Fusarium solani var. coeruleum and Phytophthora infestans respectively. Regarding antibacterial activity, the zones of inhibition ranged from 0 to 25.5 mm. Fusarium isolates and Phoma sp. 4 showed the greatest antibacterial activity, the highest activity was observed with Fusarium sp.5 and Fusarium sp. 1, which gave zones of inhibition of 25.5 and 22.5 mm respectively against B. cereus ATCC 10876. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to endophyte isolates than Gram-negative bacteria. From the results of the present work, it is possible to conclude that endophytic fungi isolated from Suaeda fruticosa could be a promising source of bioactive compounds and deserve further study.
2. Liu P, Zhang D, Shi R, Yang Z, Zhao F, Tian Y. Antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi from Astragalus chinensis. 3 Biotech. 2019; 9(11): 1-9.
3. Santra HK, Banerjee D. Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Action of Cell-Free Culture Extracts and Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Endophytic Fungi Curvularia Eragrostidis. Front Microbiol. 2022; 13: 920561.
4. Elkady WM, Raafat MM, Abdel-Aziz MM, Al-Huqail AA, Ashour ML, Fathallah N. Endophytic Fungus from Opuntia ficus-indica: A Source of Potential Bioactive Antimicrobial Compounds against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria. Plants. 2022; 11(8): 1070.
5. Li Y, Kumar PS, Tan Q, Tan X, Yuan M, Luo J, et al. Diversity and chemical fingerprinting of endo-metabolomes from endophytes associated with Ampelopsis grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) W. T. Wang possessing antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens. J Infect Public Health. 2021; 14(12): 1917-1926.
6. Ibrahim M, Oyebanji E, Fowora M, Aiyeolemi A, Orabuchi C, Akinnawo B, et al. Extracts of endophytic fungi from leaves of selected Nigerian ethnomedicinal plants exhibited antioxidant activity. BMC Complement Med Ther. 2021; 21(1): 1-13.
7. Ezeobiora CE, Igbokwe NH, Amin DH, Mendie UE. Endophytic microbes from Nigerian ethnomedicinal plants: a potential source for bioactive secondary metabolites - a review. Bull Natl Res Cent. 2021; 45(1): 103.
8. dos Santos GD, Gomes RR, Gonçalves R, Fornari G, Maia BHLNS, Schmidt-Dannert C, et al. Molecular Identification and Antimicrobial Activity of Foliar Endophytic Fungi on the Brazilian Pepper Tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) Reveal New Species of Diaporthe. Curr Microbiol. 2021; 78(8): 3218-3229.
9. Padash A, Azarmi R, Ashraf Soltani Toularoud A, Esmailpour B, Cruz C. Use of Symbiotic Fungi to Reduce the Phytotoxic Effect of DCD Nitrification Inhibitors in Lettuce. Agric. 2022; 12(2): 1-14.
10. Rabha AJ, Naglot A, Sharma GD, Gogoi HK, Gupta VK, Shreemali DD, et al. Morphological and molecular diversity of endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from tea plant, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze of Assam, India. J Genet Eng Biotechnol. 2016; 14(1): 181-187.
11. Yang X, Jin H, Xu L, Cui H, Xin A, Liu H, et al. Diversity and functions of endophytic fungi associated with roots and leaves of Stipa purpurea in an alpine steppe at qinghai-Tibet plateau. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020; 30(7): 1027-1036.
12. Jayatilake PL, Munasinghe H. Antimicrobial Activity of Cultivable Endophytic and Rhizosphere Fungi Associated with “mile-a-Minute,” Mikania cordata (Asteraceae). Biomed Res Int. 2020; 2020: 5292571.
13. Ikram M, Ali N, Jan G, Jan FG, Pervez R, Romman M, et al. Isolation of Endophytic Fungi from Halophytic Plants and their Identification and Screening for Auxin Production and Other Plant Growth Promoting Traits. J Plant Growth Regul. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-022-10685-3
14. Kannan KP, Madhan Kumar D, Ramya PR, Madhu Nika S, Meenatchi G, Sowmya AN, et al. Diversity of endophytic fungi from salt tolerant plants. Int J ChemTech Res. 2014; 6(9): 4084-4088.
15. Li JL, Sun X, Zheng Y, Lü PP, Wang YL, Guo LD. Diversity and community of culturable endophytic fungi from stems and roots of desert halophytes in northwest China. MycoKeys. 2020; 62: 75-95.
16. Zuo Y, Hu Q, Zhang K, He X. Host and Tissue Affiliations of Culturable Endophytic Fungi Associated with Xerophytic Plants in the Desert Region of Northwest China. Agronomy. 2022; 12(3): 727.
17. Razghandi M, Mohammadi A, Ghorbani M, Mirzaee MR. New fungal pathogens and endophytes associated with Salsola. J Plant Prot Res. 2020; 60(4): 362-368.
18. You YH, Park JM, Seo YG, Lee W, Kang MS, Kim JG. Distribution, characterization, and diversity of the endophytic fungal communities on Korean seacoasts showing contrasting geographic conditions. Mycobiology. 2017; 45(3): 150-159.
19. Jalili B, Bagheri H, Azadi S, Soltani J. Identification and salt tolerance evaluation of endophyte fungi isolates from halophyte plants. Int J Environ Sci Technol. 2020; 17(7): 3459-3466.
20. Yeh YH, Kirschner R. Diversity of endophytic fungi of the coastal plant vitex rotundifolia in Taiwan. Microbes Environ. 2019; 34(1): 59-63.
21. Khalmuratova I, Choi DH, Woo JR, Jeong MJ, Oh Y, Kim YG, et al. Diversity and plant growth-promoting effects of fungal endophytes isolated from salt-tolerant plants. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020; 30(11): 1680-1687.
22. Aletaha R, Sinegani AAS, Zafari D. A survey on endophytic fungi within roots of Chenopodiaceae species under different environmental conditions. Mycosphere. 2018; 9(4): 618-634.
23. González-Menéndez V, Crespo G, De Pedro N, Diaz C, Martín J, Serrano R, et al. Fungal endophytes from arid areas of Andalusia: High potential sources for antifungal and antitumoral agents. Sci Rep. 2018; 8(1): 1-13.
24. Galindo-Solís JM, Fernández FJ. Endophytic Fungal Terpenoids: Natural Role and Bioactivities. Microorganisms. 2022; 10(2): 1-22.
25. Deshmukh SK, Dufossé L, Chhipa H, Saxena S, Mahajan GB, Gupta MK. Fungal Endophytes: A Potential Source of Antibacterial Compounds. J Fungi. 2022; 8: 1-94.
26. Gashgari R, Gherbawy Y, Ameen F, Alsharari S. Molecular characterization and analysis of antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants in Saudi Arabia. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2016; 9(1):1-8.
27. Hamzah TNT, Lee SY, Hidayat A, Terhem R, Faridah-Hanum I, Mohamed R. Diversity and characterization of endophytic fungi isolated from the tropical mangrove species, Rhizophora mucronata, and identification of potential antagonists against the soil-borne fungus, Fusarium solani. Front Microbiol. 2018; 9: 1-17.
28. Toghueo R, Zeuko’o Menkem E, Mbekou Kanko M, Jesus MA-C, Ngo Mback N, Eke P, et al. Antimicrobial and antiradical activities of ethyl acetate extracts from endophytic fungi isolated from Cameroonian medicinal plants. J Med Plants Stud JMPS. 2016; 290(44): 290-295.
29. Toghueo RMK. Bioprospecting endophytic fungi from Fusarium genus as sources of bioactive metabolites. Mycology. 2020; 11(1): 1-21.
30. Kim JW, Choi HG, Song JH, Kang KS, Shim SH. Bioactive secondary metabolites from an endophytic fungus Phoma sp. PF2 derived from Artemisia princeps Pamp. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2019; 72(3): 174-177.
31. Xia X, Kim S, Bang S, Lee HJ, Liu C, Park C Il, et al. Barceloneic acid C, a new polyketide from an endophytic fungus Phoma sp. Js752 and its antibacterial activities. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2015; 68(2): 139-141.
32. Bezerra JDP, Nascimento CCF, Barbosa R do N, Da Silva DCV, Svedese VM, Silva-Nogueira EB, et al. Endophytic fungi from medicinal plant Bauhinia forficata: Diversity and biotechnological potential. Brazil J Microbiol. 2015; 46(1): 49-57.
33. Ababutain IM, Aldosary SK, Aljuraifani AA, Alghamdi AI, Alabdalall AH, Al-Khaldi EM, et al. Identification and Antibacterial Characterization of Endophytic Fungi from Artemisia sieberi. Int J Microbiol. 2021; 2021: 6651020.
34. Praptiwi, Fathoni A, Ilyas M. Diversity of endophytic fungi from Vernonia amygdalina, their phenolic and flavonoid contents and bioactivities. Biodiversitas. 2020; 21(2): 436-441.
35. Yanti NA, Jamili, Ardiansyah, Anwarrudin S. Antibacterial activity of fungi endophytic isolated from leaves the mangrove Acanthus ilicifolius l. J Phys Conf Ser. 2021; 1899(1): 1-7.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.