European Journal of Biological Research <p><strong>ISSN: 2449-8955</strong><br><strong><a title="MNiSW points: 11" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MNiSW points 2016: 11<br></a></strong><strong><a title="ICV: 100.00" href=",p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICV 2018: 100.00</a></strong><br><strong>Acceptance rate: 44% (2019)</strong></p> JBródka Publisher en-US European Journal of Biological Research 2449-8955 Serum creatinine and urea assays on Atellica® CH and Architect® ci4100: method comparison <p>Serum creatinine and urea are markers of renal function usually measured in conjunction. This study aims to evaluate the comparability of a new analyzer incorporated to our laboratory, Atellica® with the established analyzer, Architect ® ci 4100 in serum creatinine and urea assays. We ran 110 tests for creatinine and 107 for urea. In both analyzers, serum creatinine assay is based on the Jaffe reaction while urea measurement is based on the Roch-Ramel enzymatic reaction. Linear association between methods was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Methods comparability was assessed using Passing-Bablok and Deming linear regression. Differences between analyzers were evaluated using Bland-Altman plot. For serum creatinine, regression equations are Atellica = 0.9721 x Architect - 2.7282 (Passing &amp; Bablok) and Atellica = 0.8884 x Architect + 1.3456 (Deming). The mean difference between the two methods is -11.7 µmol/L as indicated by Bland-Altman plot. For urea, regression lines are expressed as Atellica = 1.0252 x Architect – 0.1609 (Passing-Bablok) and Atellica = 1.1424 x Architect – 0.9532 (Deming). Bland-Altman plot presented a mean difference of -0.1 mmol/L. These results could be described as a very good agreement between the two methods, the two analyzers could be used interchangeably.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Hind Zrikem Soumia Nachate Ibtissam Mhirig Saliha Chellak Abderrahman Boukhira ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-16 2023-01-16 13 1 1 9 Impacts of prolonged exposure to low concentration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cell cycle control and DNA repair <p>Although the toxicological profile of titanium dioxide nanoparticles is not fully illuminated, large quantities of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO<sub>2</sub>NPs) are now produced. In our study, we evaluated the cytotoxic and genotoxic impacts of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on different cell lines (normal, cancer and DNA repair-deficient cells). MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity, γ-H2AX and 53BP1 assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity and G2/M assay was used to study the impacts of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cell cycle regulation. In this study normal and DNA repair-deficient cell lines were used to study the repair mechanism of titanium dioxide nanoparticles induced DNA damage. G2/M checkpoint maintenance was also evaluated. We demonstrate that prolonged exposure to low concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles does not induce significant cytotoxicity but induces significant genotoxicity, particularly DNA double-strand breaks (DNA DSBs). Furthermore, this study demonstrated that DNA DSBs at heterochromatin region are ATM-dependent and DNA DSBs at euchromatin region are ATM-independent and DNA PKcs dependent. After exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles, we show that the activation of G2/M checkpoint is DNA DSBs dependent threshold as does checkpoint release. All in all, we showed that prolonged exposure to low concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles does not affect cell viability but causes DNA damage and cell cycle checkpoint adaptation which may lead to genetic instability.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Nada El Zahed Andreas Kakarougkas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 13 1 339 351 Investigation of antibacterial and antioxidant properties of three medicinal plants from Gaziantep, Turkey <p>Current research aimed to reveal antibacterial and antioxidant properties of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of <em>Phlomis armeniaca</em>, <em>Echinophora tenuifolia</em> subsp. <em>sibthorpiana</em> and <em>Moringa oleifera</em> plants obtained from herbalists in Gaziantep. Extracts of <em>P. armeniaca</em>, <em>E. tenuifolia</em> subsp. <em>sibthorpiana</em> and <em>M. oleifera</em> plants have antibacterial effect at varying degrees against test bacteria. Both ethyl acetate and acetone extracts of <em>P. armeniaca</em> plant exhibited higher antibacterial activity than studied other plant extracts. It was also found that the antioxidant activity increased with increasing concentrations. Since antioxidant and antibacterial activities were observed in almost all of the tested plant extracts, it was concluded that <em>P. armeniaca</em>, <em>E. tenuifolia</em> subsp. <em>sibthorpiana</em> and <em>M. oleifera</em> plants could be natural sources of antioxidant and antibacterial.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Sinem Aydin Mustafa Sümbül ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 13 1 330 338 Prevalence of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Kebbi state, Nigeria <p>Tuberculosis remains a global public health burden in low and middle-income countries. The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microbial strains in high-burden countries like Nigeria pose a threat to achieving the One health approach. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of rifampicin resistance in sputum specimens of patients in Kebbi State, Nigeria using the GeneXpert Assay. It was a retrospective cross-sectional study and was carried out in Kebbi, North-Western Nigeria among patients who were confirmed positive for tuberculosis infection and visited the designated health zones, for various local government areas within the state. Sputum samples were analyzed using the GeneXpert technique. Data entry was made using Microsoft Excel and analyzed with SPSS version 20. A p-value less than 0.05 was taken as significant. The overall prevalence of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (RR-MTB) was 5.8% (14/240). The majority of the study participants were within the age grade 31-40 years (8.77%) and male participants (7.2%) were preponderant in comparison to female participants (2.7%). There was a significant association between settlement and rifampicin resistance in the study (p=0.05). The results showed that drug-resistant tuberculosis is prevalent in Kebbi State with a higher incidence observed in the Zuru Local Government Area of the state as compared to previous findings. This shows that improving the prevention and control efforts of tuberculosis in the state with relation to adequate regulatory strategies and policy formulation is of paramount importance.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Victor Oluwatosin Olaosebikan Shuaibu Bala Manga Yusuf Kanya Danladi Augustine Chijioke Udefi Ayodele Isaac Adedokun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-09 2022-12-09 13 1 320 329 Zika and SARS-CoV-2: neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative outcomes <p>Through the emergence of new viral infectious diseases, epidemics and pandemics have brought great impacts on public health in recent decades. In this review, we sought to understand the association between the neurological outcomes of two relevant infectious diseases, Zika and COVID-19. Zika can trigger neurological and ophthalmic damage in children born from infected mothers, as well as, Guillain-Barré syndrome, encephalitis, and myelitis in adults. On the other hand, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has great potential to trigger an inflammatory process in the optic nerve, with optic neuritis as the most reported pathology. Although Zika and SARS-CoV-2 infections are associated with different clinical manifestations, both may trigger similar pathogenic processes, through the induction of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines release, triggering neurological and ophthalmological damage in infected patients. Elements in common have been found in both infections, such as antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, and the production of CXCL10, a chemokine responsible for the activation of several cellular types (T cells, eosinophils, monocytes and NK cells) in which are responsible to the induction of a cytokine cascade in the body. Based on these last findings, we suggest that both infections have similar activation characteristics as well as common pathogenic mechanisms associated with central nervous system involvement.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Jenniffer Ramos Martins Felipe Emanuel Oliveira Rocha Vivian Vasconcelos Costa, Costa Felipe Ferraz Dias, Dias ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-28 2022-11-28 13 1 307 319 Novel mutations of PCCA and PCCB genes found by whole-exome sequencing related to propionic acidemia patients <p>Propionic acidemia (PROP) is an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic deficiency caused by multimeric mitochondrial enzyme propionyl‐coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (PCC). PCC enzyme contains a and b subunits, encoded by the <em>PCCA</em> and <em>PCCB</em> genes that mutations in both subunits are related to propionic acidemia. About 50% of disease-causing variants have been found in <em>PCCA</em> and most mutations related to propionic acidemia are missense mutations. The present study involves three families that are suspicious to hereditary propionic acidemia syndrome. The first family has four, the second family has one, and the third family has two passed-away children. All these families were diagnosed with the same clinical conditions such as poor feeding, vomiting, hypotonia, and lethargy. In the process of finding and confirming the mutation, pathological tests and whole-exome sequencing and sanger sequencing were done. In order to pathological tests and whole-exome sequencing, this is the first report of three novel variants related to propionic acidemia: 1. Novel pathogenic homozygous NM_000532.5: c.503_505del: p.Glu168del mutation of the <em>PCCB</em> exon5 gene, 2. Novel pathogenic homozygous splicing NM_000282:c.1900- 1G&gt;A mutation of <em>PCCA</em> exon22 and exon21, 3. Novel compound heterozygous pathogenic NM_000532.5: c.503_505del: p.Glu168del and likely pathogenic NM_000532.5:c.539T&gt;C: P.F180S mutation of the <em>PCCB</em> exon5 gene. The study shows that <em>PCCA</em> and <em>PCCB</em> have a great role in hereditary propionic acidemia and the results of the present study may be of importance in genetic counseling and finding the best treatment of this syndrome.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Sajad Rafiee Komachali Zakieh Siahpoosh Sara Rafiee Komachali Dor Mohammad Kordi Tamandani Mansoor Salehi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-28 2022-11-28 13 1 294 306 Phenolic profile and biological activities of Aloe barbadensis (Miller) from western Algeria <p><em>Aloe vera</em> is widely used in conventional medicine in Algeria to treat various diseases. This study aims to evaluate the chemical composition and biological activities of <em>Aloe vera</em> collected from western Algeria. Two extracts of ethanolic (EEA) and aqueous (AEA) were used to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC was applied to determine the amount of 15 compounds they contain, while the antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method. The antimicrobial activity experiment was conducted against five selected bacterial strains. Finally, an <em>in vivo</em> study on Swiss albino mice was conducted to discover the toxicity using Lorke’s method and anti-inflammatory activity using the Carrageenan method. The EEA extract shows the highest total phenol content of 37.00±0.37mg GAE/g and total flavonoid content of 9.14±0.19 mg CE/g. The AEA contains hydroxybenzoic and benzoic acid with other ingredients (0.84 and 0.82 mg/g, respectively). The EEA contains 0.93 mg/g of benzoic acid. <em>Aloe vera</em> has antioxidant activity with IC<sub>50</sub> values equal to 0.821 mg/ml for EEA and 1.993 mg/ml for AEA. The AEA inhibits <em>E. coli and </em><em>S. aureus </em>with a bacteriostatic effect; EEA is the best inhibitor of <em>S. aureus and </em><em>S. mutans</em> with the bactericidal effect. <em>Aloe vera</em> is practically nontoxic (LD<sub>50 </sub>is 3800 mg/kg of the AEA and superior to 5000 mg/kg of EEA). The AEA gives the best inhibition of edema, 85.96% at (100 mg/kg). <em>Aloe vera </em>leaves are an important resource of polyphenols, which have interesting antioxidant power, and antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Firdaous Faiza Fedoul Boumediene Meddah Mohammed Larouci Aicha Tir Touil Yahya Merazi Yavuz Selim Cakmak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-02 2022-11-02 13 1 282 293 Chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus extracts from Algeria <p>This study was conducted to examine chemical compositions, the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of methanolic and aqueous extracts from aerial parts of <em>Juniperus oxycedrus subsp oxycedrus</em> growing in Mascara, Algeria. The quantitative assessment indicated that methanol extract was the most concentrated in phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents (167.77±5.12&nbsp;mg&nbsp;GAE/g&nbsp;DW, 90.56±2.23 mg QE/g DE and 110.21±2.38 mg CE/g DE respectively). The chromatographic analysis by HPLC showed quantitative differences in phenolic constutents, noting that Chlorogenic acid was the major compound of both extracts. Moreover, methanolic extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity than the aqueous extract when tested by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (IC<sub>50</sub>&nbsp;4.45±0.001&nbsp;μg/mL) and phosphomolybdenum (328.52±0.071 mg of GAE/g DW) assays. Furthermore, the <em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;anti-inflammatory activity showed a strong inhibition of albumin denaturation by the methanolic extract at different concentrations when compared to standard drug diclofenac sodium. These findings confirm the richness of Algerian <em>Juniperus oxycedrus</em> extracts in bioactive compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. These results are compatible with the use of the plant in traditional medicine.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Soumia Djellouli Khadidja Side Larbi Boumediene Meddah Abdelkrim Rebiai Aicha Tir Touil Pascal Sonnet ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-02 2022-10-02 13 1 271 281 Encapsulation effects of galactomannans combined with xanthan on the survival of two lactic strains under simulated digestive hostilities <p>Galactomannans are the main component of locust bean gum from the fruit of the carob tree, <em>Ceratonia siliqua </em>L. They are a reserve of polysaccharides, found in the translucent endosperm of the seeds. They are designated as the best gels with thickening capacity and are, therefore, widely used as a natural food additive (E410) in many food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. In this study, we aim to exploit this gelling property of carob galactomannans in the microencapsulation of lactic bacteria in order to protect them from the negative effects of simulated digestive conditions. Two beneficial bacteria are used: <em>Lactobacillus rhamnosus </em>LBRE-LSAS and <em>Bifidobacterium animalis </em>subsp. <em>lactis</em> Bb12. Their survival in the free state or encapsulated in pure carob galactomannan gel combined with xanthan, was determined after residence in simulated <em>in vitro</em> digestive conditions (gastric: pH 2, pepsin 3 g/l and intestinal: bile 0.3%: W/V, pH 6.5. The results obtained show that gel encapsulation of carob galactomannans combined with xanthan improves the survival of these two beneficial strains to simulated digestive hostilities. the loss under gastric conditions 36.79% (3.55 log CFU/mL) for the non-encapsulated cells and only 12% (1.2 log CFU/mL) for the encapsulated ones. However, galactomannans alone do not appear to be effective in keeping a minimum of 10<sup>6</sup> bacterial cells viable when confronted with the hostile conditions of the digestive tract where they will be called upon to exert their positive effect on health.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Abdallah Rahali Mounira Ariech Badreddine Moussaoui Ali Riazi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-04 2022-09-04 13 1 262 270 In silico exploration of Lycoris alkaloids as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) <p>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic whose adverse effects have been felt all over the world. As of August 2022, reports indicated that over 500 million people in the world had been infected and the number of rising deaths from the disease were slightly above 6.4 million. New variants of the causative agent, SARS-CoV-2 are emanating now and then and some are more efficacious and harder to manage. SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) has essential functions in viral gene expression and replication through proteolytic cleavage of polyproteins. Search for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors is a vital step in the treatment and management of COVID-19. In this study, we investigated whether alkaloids with antiviral and myriad other bioactivities from the genus <em>Lycoris</em> can act as SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors. We conducted a computer-aided drug design study through screening optimal ligands for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro from a list of over 150 <em>Lycoris</em> alkaloids created from online databases such as ChEMBL, PubChem, ChemSpider, and published journal papers. The <em>In silico</em> study involved molecular docking of <em>Lycoris </em>alkaloids to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro active site, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicity (ADMET) screening and finally molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of the most promising ligand-SARS-CoV-2 Mpro complexes. The study identified 3,11-dimethoxy-lycoramine, narwedine, O-demethyllycoramine and epilycoramine as drug-like and lead-like <em>Lycoris</em> alkaloids with favorable ADMET properties and are very likely to have an inhibition activity on SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and may become potential drug candidates.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Fredrick Mutie Musila Grace W Gitau Magrate M. Kaigongi Dickson B. Kinyanyi Jeremiah M. Mulu Joseph M. Nguta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 13 1 238 261 Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with halophytic species Salsola vermiculata <p>Endophytic fungi are known for their production of bioactive compounds with antibacterial and antifungal activity. In this study, an evaluation of the antibacterial and antifungal activity of endophytic fungi isolated from <em>Salsola vermiculata</em>, a halophyte species collected from Chott el Hodna, M'sila (Algeria) was carried out. The eleven isolated endophytic fungi were identified as belonging to the genera <em>Alternaria</em> sp., <em>Aureobasidium</em> sp., <em>Phoma</em> sp., <em>Chrysosporium</em> sp., <em>Fusarium</em> sp., <em>Aspergillus</em> sp., <em>Papulaspora</em> sp., <em>Ulocladium</em> sp., <em>Humicola</em> sp. and <em>Pencillium</em> sp. The antimicrobial activity of endophyte isolates was tested against phytopathogenic fungi and pathogenic bacteria using the dual culture and the agar plug diffusion methods respectively. The higher percentage inhibition of 79% was obtained by the isolate <em>Penicillium</em> sp. 1 against <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> f.sp. <em>ciccri</em>. All isolated endophytic fungi showed antibacterial activity against at least one pathogenic bacterium, the greatest effect was obtained by <em>Fusarium</em> sp. against <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> ATCC 27853 and <em>Bacillus cereus</em> ATCC 10876 with inhibition zones of 26.33 and 25.33 mm respectively. After the comparison of the means of the zones of inhibition, the isolate <em>Chrysosporium</em> sp. was the most active against all pathogenic bacteria with average inhibition zones of 20.55 mm.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Amina Zerroug Nouari Sadrati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 13 1 228 237 Broad antibacterial spectrum of endophytic fungi isolated from halophyte Suaeda fruticosa in Algeria <p>The purpose of this work was to isolate and evaluate the antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi isolated from <em>Suaeda</em> <em>fruticosa</em>. Endophytic isolates were identified at the genus level. The genera<em> Fusarium</em> (33.33%), <em>Phoma </em>(26.67%), <em>Penicillium</em> (13.33%), and <em>Aspergillus</em> (13.33%) were more prevalent, while <em>Trichoderma </em>genus (6.67%) was less common. The isolated fungal endophytes were screened for their potential antifungal and antibacterial activities. Most isolates showed different levels of inhibitory activity against at least one of the pathogens. The best inhibition percentages were those obtained by <em>Penicillium</em> sp. 1; 74, 71, 65, and 47% against <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> f.sp. <em>albedinis</em>, <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> f.p. <em>ciccri</em>, <em>Fusarium solani</em> var. <em>coeruleum</em> and <em>Phytophthora infestans</em> respectively. Regarding antibacterial activity, the zones of inhibition ranged from 0 to 25.5 mm. <em>Fusarium</em> isolates and <em>Phoma</em> sp. 4 showed the greatest antibacterial activity, the highest activity was observed with <em>Fusarium</em> sp.5 and <em>Fusarium</em> sp. 1, which gave zones of inhibition of 25.5 and 22.5 mm respectively against <em>B. cereus</em> ATCC 10876. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to endophyte isolates than Gram-negative bacteria. From the results of the present work, it is possible to conclude that endophytic fungi isolated from <em>Suaeda</em> <em>fruticosa</em> could be a promising source of bioactive compounds and deserve further study.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Sadrati Nouari Amina Zerroug ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 13 1 216 227 Synthesis of nicotine derivatives and evaluation of their anti-bacterial activity <p>Using a convergent synthetic method, a series of nicotine derivatives were synthesized from the basic materials nicotine-N-oxide in good yields. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral methods of analysis (FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR). Most of the target compounds were tested for antibacterial activity against five kinds of bacteria; the tested compounds exhibited varying levels of activity against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The results of bioactivities showed that some of the target compounds exhibited good antibacterial activities against <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em>, and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>. In addition, the broad spectrum anti-microbial action of nicotine derivatives developed in the present study may find immense applications in formulating new disinfection or decontamination strategies against widely spreading pathogens of clinical significance.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Djaafar Zemali Mohammed Ridha Ouahrani Salah Neghmouche Nacer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-14 2022-08-14 13 1 207 215 Hyoscyamus muticus L. subsp. falezlez methanolic extract: phytochemical composition and biological activities <p>This study aims to assess the phytochemical analysis and evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extract obtained from the Algerian <em>Hyoscyamus muticus</em> L. subsp. <em>falezlez</em> leaves of Timimoun region. Methanolic extract of the plant contained the highest quantity of phenolics (148.00 ± 3.07 µg GAE/mg extract) and flavonoids (41.43 ± 0.90 µg QE/mg extract). The High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) results showed dominance in the phenolic compounds: orientin, vitexin 2-O-rhamnoside and n-OH-cinnamic acid. Eight metabolites were identified and quantified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) which included five fatty acids, one dicarboxylic acid derivative, one bicyclic hydrocarbon and one fatty acid derivate. The GC-MS analysis revealed that palmitic acid (32.56%), linolenic acid (21.34%) and linoleic acid (11.24%) were the three major components. The methanolic extract showed an antioxidant activity for DPPH, ABTS, reducing power and phenanthroline assays. The strongest antioxidant activity was obtained with phenanthroline assay (value of A<sub>0.5</sub> &lt;3.125 µg/mL). The antimicrobial investigation on thirteen microbial strains revealed that the methanolic extract showed low to moderate antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive and negative tested bacteria and no antifungal activity on all the tested fungi. This work suggests the use of leaves from <em>H. muticus</em> L. subsp. <em>falezlez </em>as a source of bioactive compounds with applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Sofia Ayari-Guentri Nadjette Djemouai Somia Saad Samira Karoune Rabéa Gaceb-Terrak Fatma Rahmania ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-26 2022-06-26 13 1 190 206 Synthesis of oxadiazole substituted new carbazole derivatives as antioxidant and antiurease agent <p>Heterocyclic compounds containing nitrogen together with an oxygen atom in their structures are an important class of medicinal chemistry compounds due to their interesting diverse biological applications. Some compounds including carbazole ring, which are aromatic organic compounds in tricyclic structure, show biological activity in a wide spectrum. Oxadiazole compounds attract the attention of many chemists thanks to their antibacterial, antitumor, anticancer, anti-viral, antimicrobial, anti-HIV, antituberculosis and antioxidant properties. In this study, new oxadiazole substituted carbazole derivatives were synthesized and their antioxidant, antiurease activities were investigated. 9H-carbazole is a good starting material for the synthesis of carbazole derivatives. The antioxidant and antiurease activities of synthesized oxadiazole substituted new carbazole derivatives were investigated. Antioxidant activity methods such as DPPH (1,1’-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt) radical scavenging activities and iron reducing power capacities were used to determine antioxidant activity of the compounds. All synthesized carbazole compounds showed antioxidant and antiurease activity. While compound 4 shows the strongest enzyme inhibition activity, the least active compound was found 5. All tested compounds showed higher enzyme inhibition activity than thiourea. The highest and the lowest antioxidant activities were observed as compounds 3 and 6, respectively.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Nurhan Gümrükçüoğlu Bahar Bilgin Sökmen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-03 2022-06-03 13 1 181 189 Biological properties and polyphenols content of Algerian Cistus salviifolius L. aerial parts <p>This study evaluated the <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant properties, antibacterial and antifungal activities and <em>in vivo</em> anti-inflammatory properties, and identifying the phenolic compounds in <em>Cistus salviifolius</em>. The methanolic leaf extract showed the highest antioxidant activity with 6.1±1.60 µg/ml IC<sub>50 </sub>value using DPPH<sup>·</sup> and 55.5±0.20 µg/ml using Reducing Power Activity. The study revealed that the butanolic leaf extract and the aqueous leaf infusion exhibited the strongest growth-inhibiting effect against all Gram positive and Gram negative strains tested, respectively, whereas the methanolic leaf extract showed the strongest antifungal activity against the yeast tested. The MIC value for the butanolic leaf extract was 4 mg/ml against <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em>. The pharmacotoxicological tests proved the safety of the aqueous leaf infusion, which exhibit a moderate anti-inflammatory effect, with a significant inhibition of the oedema development equal to 44.7% compared to 59.3% for the reference product diclofenac sodium. Methanolic extracts of the leaf and flower buds showed varied contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, and hydrolysable tannins; which were 228.4±11.4 mg GAE/g, 34.2±0.6 mg QE/g, and 36.9±2.6 mg TAE/g of the dry weight for leaves; and 241.1±5.4 mg GAE/g, 47.6±4.5 mg QE/g, and 22.0±1.3 mg TAE/g of the dry weight for flower buds, respectively. Analysis of the ethereal and butanolic leaf extracts using Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method coupled with a Photodiode-Array Detector identified thirteen phenolic compounds, including ascorbic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, and orientin.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Sihem Boubekeur Mohammed Messaoudi Chinaza Godswill Awuchi Olutosin Ademola Otekunrin Barbara Sawicka Samira Idjeri-Mecherara Sihem Bouchareb Aicha Hassani Majid Sharifi-Rad Samir Begaa Abdelkrim Rebiai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-21 2022-05-21 13 1 163 180 A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): current status and challenges <p>In December, 2019 a new public health crisis threatened the world with the emergence of new zoonotic virus, the 2019 novel coronavirus. SARS-Cov-2 or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 belongs to the family of coronaviruses named for the crown-like spikes on its surfaces. SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019), a contagious viral infection that attacks primarily throat and lungs causing pneumonia-like symptoms. It is speculated that SARS-CoV-2 seem to have come from a bat, but the intermediate reservoir is still unknown. This review will address SARS-CoV-2 structure, clinical features, SARS-CoV-2 genome and its different variant, diagnosis, and treatment and also gives a bird's eye view on the epidemiology and pathology based on current evidence.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Nilay Vishal Singh Harshita Kaushik Vinay Kumar Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-18 2022-05-18 13 1 153 162 Antidiabetic effect of oral supplementation with Caulerpa racemosa powder <p>Algae are known for their high nutritional value and the presence of bioactive compounds with anti-diabetic activity. In this study, the effects of oral supplementation with the whole powdered green alga <em>Caulerpa racemosa</em> was assessed on biochemical and organic parameters in rat model of type 2 diabetes.&nbsp; Type 2 diabetes model (DM) was induced by high fat diet (HFD) (5.75 kcal/g) combined to streptozotocin injection (35 mg/kg). The DM-C500 and DM-C1000 groups were maintained on HFD and supplemented orally during four weeks with powdered <em>C. racemosa</em> at 500 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. The DM-C0 group was fed with HFD without <em>C. racemosa</em> supplementation. All the experimental rats were maintained on HFD during the 30 days of experiment. <em>C. racemosa</em> at 500 mg/kg improved fasting glycaemia and glucose tolerance. The IPGTT test revealed a decrease (p&lt;0.05) in the fasting glycaemia recorded at the 120th min from day 0 (534 ± 38.88 mg/dL) to day 30 (326 ± 63.05 mg/dL). <em>C. racemosa</em> supplementation prevented liver lipid peroxidation in DM-C500 and DM-C1000 group (12.94 ± 2.20 and 10.48 ± 1.15 nmol MDA/g, respectively) compared to DM-C0 group (35.49 ± 2.30 nmol MDA/g). <em>Caulerpa racemosa</em> at 500 mg/kg, and relatively at 1000 mg/kg, alleviated pancreatic, liver and renal tissue damages compared to DM-C0 groups which displayed injuries in their histological sections. <em>Caulerpa racemosa</em> oral supplementation could represent a possible natural approach to prevent organic and metabolic disorders related to type 2 diabetes.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Nassima El Habitri Louiza Belkacemi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-18 2022-05-18 13 1 141 152 CAR-T cell: an epitome for the cure of hematologic malignancies <p>There is an increasing reliance on modern cancer therapies on immunotherapeutic approaches such as immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell therapy (ACT), which includes tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), T cell receptor (TCR)-modified T cells, and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). CAR-T cell therapy provides a unique approach to redirect T cells against distinct tumor antigens. It has generated widespread interest in oncology following several clinical successes in patients suffering from chemorefractory B cell malignancies. Since CAR-T cell therapy is a novel treatment, it does not have a clearly defined protocol. However, a rough protocol for CAR-T cell production is outlined in this article. The manufacturing of clinical-grade CAR-T cells under Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) is a very critical step in CAR-T cell production. However, this step has also become a bioprocessing bottleneck that needs to be surmounted for CAR-T cell therapy to reach a global patient population. CAR-T cells have a wide-ranging application in treatment of cancer. The first trials on B-ALL patients were conducted at MSKCC with conditioning chemotherapy of cyclophosphamide only. In case of CML patients, CAR-T cells that target the IL-1RAP protein have demonstrated the ability to selectively target the quiescent CML stem cells in various preclinical studies. Apart from CML, CAR-T cells can also be used to treat Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). For example, CD7 targeting CAR-T cells have shown effective cytotoxic effect against AML.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Mohammad Afeef Shreya Bhattacharyya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-02 2022-05-02 13 1 114 140 Effects of extraction solvents on polyphenols content and biological activity of Ajuga iva extracts <p>Different solvent systems have been used for the extraction of polyphenols from plant material, however, the appropriate solvent system is more effective for extracting the total phenolic of any plant extract and evaluating the antibacterial activity is not determined yet. Thus, the objective of this research was to determine the most effective solvent for extraction and characterization of polyphenols as well as antibacterial activity of the aerial parts <em>Ajuga iva</em> extracts. The Soxhlet method was devised to extract polyphenols from aerials parts of <em>Ajuga iva</em> powders, for this matter, three different solvents were used In order to analyze and quantify the result an in vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the various plant extracts was carried out. The preliminary evaluation of the chemical composition made it possible to highlight the presence of some chemical groups. The quantitative determination of polyphenols is twofold, first the dichloromethanic extract contains the highest levels of polyphenols (3.38 mg GAE/g), second the ethanolic extract contains the highest levels of flavonoids (6.59 mg CE/g DW) and tannins (14.58 mg CE/g DW). On other hand, a remarkable antibacterial activity of some tested extracts was detected. The results showed that solvents with different polarities significantly affected polyphenol content and antibacterial activity.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Asmaa Belmimoun Khadidja Side Larbi Sarra Benoudane Saliha Belhadja Aicha Tir Touil Meddah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 13 1 102 113