European Journal of Biological Research <p><strong>ISSN: 2449-8955</strong><br><strong><a title="MNiSW points: 11" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MNiSW points 2016: 11<br></a></strong><strong><a title="ICV: 100.00" href=",p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICV 2018: 100.00</a></strong><br><strong>Acceptance rate: 44% (2019)</strong></p> JBródka Publisher en-US European Journal of Biological Research 2449-8955 Comparative antimicrobial study of Vernonia amygdalina Del. and Lawsonia inermis L. against microorganisms from aqueous milieu <p>Limitations have been concurrent with the use of antibiotics in chemotherapy. Hence, antimicrobial potency of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> and <em>Lawsonia inermis</em> on some selected multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria and fungi isolated from stream were compared. The phytochemical evaluation and antimicrobial susceptibility test of MAR bacteria and fungi was achieved via CLSI reference standard of perfloxacin (10 µg) and ketoconazole (150 mg/ml) with susceptibility index (&gt;14.00 mm and &gt;15.00 mm, respectively) as control for bacteria and fungi respectively. Saponin and steroids were present in both <em>V. amygdalina</em> and <em>L. inermis </em>ethanol extracts but alkaloids were present in <em>V. amygdalina</em> and absent in <em>L. inermis</em> ethanol extracts. The ethanol extract of <em>L. inermis</em> had higher percentage recovery yield (16.13%) to that of <em>V. amygdalina</em> (10.78%). Synergistic effect of mixture of <em>V. amygdalina</em> and <em>L. inermis</em> ethanol extracts was displayed against <em>Alcaligenes faecalis</em> (29.00 mm) and <em>P. penneri</em> (20.00 mm). The MIC and MBC of <em>V. amygdalina</em> ethanol extract against <em>A. feacalis</em> was both 50 mg/ml. The combined mixture of <em>V. amygdalina</em> and <em>L. inermis </em>ethanol extracts showed 12.67 mm against <em>A. fumigatus.</em> This study revealed the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of <em>V. amygdalina</em> and <em>L. inermis</em> extracts in the treatment of related water-borne infections<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Olubukola Olayemi Olusola-Makinde Michael Tosin Bayode ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-07 2021-05-07 11 3 283 293 Use of statistical analysis to monitor novel coronavirus-19 cases in Jammu and Kashmir, India <p>Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been increasing slowly and steadily in all the districts of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is essential for the government and health management system to monitor the districts affected due to COVID-19. The main objective of this study is to ascertain and categorize the COVID-19 affected districts into real clusters based on similarities within a cluster and differences among clusters in order to imply standard operating procedures (SOPs) policies, decisions, medical facilities, etc. could be improved for reducing the risk of infection and death and optimize the deployment of resources for preventing subsequent outbreaks.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Digvijay Pandey Tajamul Islam Junaid A. Magray Aadil Gulzar Shabir A. Zargar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-09 2021-04-09 11 3 274 282 Fumigant toxicity and repellency of citronella grass essential oil (Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle) to German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.) <p>Citronella grass (<em>Cymbopogon nardus</em> (L.) Rendle) is a tropical plant that can develop as an insect pest fumigant and repellent, especially for the control of the populations of German cockroaches (<em>Blattella germanica</em> L.). The research aims to investigate the fumigation toxicity and repellency of citronella grass essential oil against German cockroach males and nymphs. Fumigation toxicity and repellency tests are the protocol that uses in the present research. The field populations of cockroaches collected in Indonesia from several locations. The essential oil of citronella grass is not fumigant. In contrast, the citronella grass essential oil effectively repels the cockroach, and the repellency ranges from 65.72–100.00% at 1 hour and still effective after 24 hours. The citronella grass essential oil can develop as a repellent product than as a fumigant to the German cockroach pest.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Robby Jannatan Resti Rahayu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-07 2021-04-07 11 3 267 273 Determination of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and total antioxidant capacity in some endemic Sideritis L. (Lamiaceae) species grown in Turkey <p>In this study, total phenolic, total flavonoid and antioxidant activities of the some endemic species <em>Sideritis rubriflora</em> Hub.-Mor.<em>, Sideritis libanotica</em> Labill. subsp<em>. violascens</em> (P.H.Davis) P.H.Davis<em>, Sideritis erythrantha</em> Boıss. Et Heldr. Apus Bentham var. <em>cedretorum</em> P.H.Davis<em>, Sideritis congesta</em> P. H. Davis Et Hub.-Mor.<em>, Sideritis brevidens</em> P.H.Davis and<em> Sideritis vuralii</em> H. Duman Et Başer, which were collected from Anamur district of Mersin province in Turkey, were analyzed. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total antioxidant capacity (DPPH), (ABTS), (FRAP) of the ground surface parts were evaluated. As a result of the study, the highest TPC value was observed in <em>S. erythrantha</em> subsp. <em>c</em><em>edretorum </em>and<em> S. rubriflora </em>extracts as being 366.9 and 328.3 mg/g DW, respectively; the highest TFC value was observed in <em>S. rubriflora </em>extract as being 155.7 mg/g; the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed in <em>S. congesta</em> and <em>S. brevidens</em> extracts as being 39.1% and 38.9%, respectively; the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity was observed in <em>S. erythrantha</em> subsp. <em>cedretorum</em> and <em>S. rubriflora </em>extracts as being 54.9% and 51.9%, respectively; the highest FRAP value was observed in <em>S. libanotica </em>subsp<em>. violascens </em>extract as being 1500.2 µmol/g. In the light of the acquired findings, it is suggested that <em>Sideritis</em> species used in the study can be used as a possible natural source in the pharmaceutical and food industries<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Emre Sevindik İsmail Gübeş Zehra Tuğba Murathan Gülendam Tümen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-02 2021-04-02 11 3 260 266 Analysis of early onset of Alzheimer's disease genes: disease causing and risk factors <p>Alzheimer's disease is on the rise around the globe and is ranked sixth in the United States as the leading cause of death. It is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and the main causes of dementia. It is often characterized by symptoms such as lack of memory, agitation, restlessness, changes in personality, inability to perform everyday tasks, and impairment of speech. There are two forms of Alzheimer's disease: early onset of Alzheimer's disease occurring before 65 years of age, manifesting in 5-10% of the population, and late-onset of Alzheimer's disease manifesting after 65 years of age. In this study, the role of single nucleotide polymorphism in Alzheimer's disease using genome-wide association studies was investigated. Further, mutations underlying early onset of Alzheimer's disease were analyzed and it was found that mutations in the six genes <em>APP</em>, <em>PSEN1</em>, <em>PSEN2</em>, <em>MAPT</em>, <em>GRN</em> and <em>PRNP</em> resulted in the structural and functional protein modifications. These altered amino acids in early onset of Alzheimer's disease contribute to its pathogenesis. A single change in these genes is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and might lead to early onset of Alzheimer's disease, however sporadic cases have also been identified<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Prama Pandey Poonam Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-27 2021-03-27 11 3 251 259 Impact on the productivity of preparation on rhizobial inoculant carriers <p>Selection of a suitable carrier material for rhizobial inoculants is essential for biofertilizers production. Locally available wastes or by-products as carrier material will increase the cost effectiveness of the inoculants preparation. Here, were evaluated four such waste materials from local ground <em>viz.</em> charcoal, saw dust, garden soil and sugarcane bagasse with carrier based inoculums (10<sup>8</sup> viable cells/ml) and kept at room temperature (30 ± 2<sup>0</sup>C). The colony forming unit (CFU) count of each strain in different carriers was monitored every month. The charcoal, garden soil and saw dust resulted to allow a better survival of the inoculums. The viable counts in charcoal, soil, saw dust and sugarcane bagasse after 240 days of storage was recorded as 10<sup>7</sup>, 10<sup>6</sup>, 10<sup>5</sup> and 10<sup>3</sup> for MPR<sub>8</sub> and 10<sup>7</sup>, 10<sup>5</sup>, 10<sup>5</sup> and 10<sup>3</sup> for TFR<sub>3</sub> strains respectively. The effects of storage of carrier on plant productivity showed better plant biomass accumulation and nodulation in cases of charcoal, sawdust and garden soil. However it was insignificant with the sugarcane bagasse based inoculants.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Som Prasad Paudyal Bishnu Dev Das Vivek Ranjan Paudel Niroj Paudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-27 2021-03-27 11 3 242 250 Antimicrobial activity of dried fig (Ficus carica L.) extracts from the region of Mascara (Western Algeria) on Enterobacter cloacae identified by MALDI-TOF/MS <p><em>Enterobacter cloacae</em> is currently known as a urinary tract infection agent, especially in hospitals recognized by its resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporin’s, which makes it a target for different works in order to find natural and definitive means of fight and treatment. Their limited biochemical reactivity and their different morphotypes is a real obstacle to their identification by conventional phenotypic means. 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene sequencing is highly successful for bacterial identification. However, in recent years, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time in flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a very valid technique for the identification and diagnosis of microorganisms. Our study aims to identify three bacteria belonging to the <em>Enterobacter cloacae</em> species isolated from various environments by the MALDI-TOF/MS method and then to study their antimicrobial activity against some extracts of dried figs of <em>Ficus carica</em> fruits grown in the mascara region (western Algeria). The determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) shows a significant inhibition of the activity of <em>E. cloacae</em> by the methanolic extract of El-Keurt variety at 2.34 mg/ml of extract. This study seems to give good guidance for the use of dried figs against <em>Enterobacter</em> infections.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Benmaghnia Souhila Boukhannoufa Asma Meddah Boumediene Tir-Touil Aicha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-26 2021-03-26 11 3 234 241 The antibiotic resistance study of Enterobacteriaceae, Yersiniaceae and Morganellaceae bacteria isolated from broilers (outside veterinary control) in western Algeria <p>In the context of our study of the animal side, especially in broiler chickens, the breeding of the latter requires the use of antibiotics for treatment and prophylaxis purpose; to give a closer look at the antibiotic resistance status of broiler chickens in Western Algeria. The bacteria <em>Enterobacter</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Proteus</em>, <em>Salmonella</em>, <em>Serratia</em> were present and showed a high multidrug-resistance at a percentage of 67.14%, 63.64%, 60%, 57.27%, 50% respectively. The forty-nine bacteria identified belong to different families of Enterobacteriaceae, Yersiniaceae and Morganellaceae have shown an overall resistance of 61.22%. Presented resistance to cefazolin 91.84%, flumequine 89.80%, neomycin 83.67%, ceftiofur 79.59%, ampicillin 73.47%, trimethoprim 73.47%, aztreonam 57.14%, colistin 48.98 %, nadilixic acid 32.65%, streptomycin 30.61%, gentamicin 12.24%. To study the sensitivity, critical values to antibiotics a statistical Student's t-test was used. All bacteria were significantly resistant (P ≤ 0.05) to the following antibiotics: flumequine, neomycin, cefazolin, trimethoprim, ampicillin, and ceftiofur. However, a low sensitivity was also noted to gentamicin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin (P ≤ 0.05). Some isolated bacteria were resistant to many antibiotics, with resistance from 3 to 10 antibiotics simultaneously. The highest percentage of all bacteria (28.57%) were resistant to 8 antibiotics, while the lowest percentage of all bacteria (2.04%) were resistant to 3 and 10 antibiotics.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Merazi Yahya Kheira Hammadi Fedoul Firdaous Faiza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-08 2021-03-08 11 3 217 233 Study of aquatic biodiversity and correlation with physical parameters of Jalangi river <p>The present study is concerned to assess the present status of aquatic biodiversity and its correlation with few physical parameters of river Jalangi. The study shows more than 35 species of freshwater fishes, eight species of zooplanktons, four species of dragonflies and two species of damselflies, few species of mollusks, which reflects that the river Janangi is full of diversity with respect to flora and fauna. The river is full of eel grass. River Jalangi is also a habitat of water striders, few crab species and aquatic snakes. In few areas, pollution may affect the present ecological status of Jalangi River in near future. This preliminary study identifies the overall biodiversity status of Jalangi. However, more work in this direction is required to make complete database on floral and faunal diversity of this river.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Monojit Ray Sandip Pal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-02-07 2021-02-07 11 3 212 216 Antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials, total phenolic contents of some herbal waters <p>The aim of the actual study is to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials, total phenolic contents of thyme (<em>Thymus</em> sp.), myrtle (<em>Myrtus communis</em> L.), eucalyptus (<em>Eucalyptus globulus</em> L.) and rosemary herbal waters (<em>Rosmarinus officinalis</em> L.). They were bought a retailer in Giresun. In the studies, it was determined that only thyme water exhibited antimicrobial activity in all herbal waters. Streptomycine, tetracycline and nystatin which were synthetic antimicrobials demonstrated higher activity than studied herbal waters. Moreover; total flavonoid contents of the tested waters ranges from 50.19±0.0038 µL CE/mL to 126.15±0.004 µL CE/mL. The highest and the lowest total phenolic contents were detected in the thyme water and the eucalyptus water as 688.18±0.009 µL GAE/mL and 24.54±0.0008 µL GAE/mL, respectively. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of the herbal waters exhibited a dose dependent manner and increased with increasing conentrations. As a result of this study, it was concluded that thyme water could be an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents and thyme water, myrtle water, eucalyptus water and rosemary waters might be an alternative to synthetic antioxidative agents. Hence, further and detailed investigations are needed to determine active constituents in the herbal waters.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Sinem Aydin Ayşegül Caniklioğlu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-02-04 2021-02-04 11 3 203 211 Efficacy of Detarium microcarpum extracts and synergistic effect of combine extract and ivermectin against Caenorhabditis elegans <p>This work tested the efficacy of crude methanol and aqueous extracts from the stem bark of <em>Detarium microcarpum </em>and the effect of combined extract and ivermectin<em> in vitro</em> against the motility of <em>C. elegans</em> Bristol N2 and <em>C. elegans</em> DA1316 L4 larvae. Series of concentrations (0.2, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/ml) of aqueous and methanolic extracts of <em>D. microcarpum</em> was used for the test. Counting of the motile larvae was carried out after 24 hours and 48 hours. A further test was carried out using a combination of plant extract and ivermectin. Both the aqueous and the methanolic extracts exhibited good anthelmintic activity in the inhibition of larval motility of<em> C. elegans</em> Bristol N2 as well of<em> C. elegans </em>DA1316 with a significant difference at P &lt; 0.05 when compared to the negative control. However, a significant difference occurred between treatment with aqueous and methanolic extract at P &lt; 0.05. The performance of the extracts was concentration and time-dependent. A combination of plant extract and ivermectin prove more potent than the pure extract against both strains of <em>C. elegans.</em> These extracts may be used to control parasitic nematodes including ivermectin resistant type. Treatment using combined plant anthelmintic and synthetic drugs should be encouraged as the combination was more promising. Further studies should be carried on the identification of active compounds in the extracts and studying the mode of action of the drugs on the nematodes and <em>in vivo</em> tests of the extract.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Haladu Ali Gagman Nik Ahmad Irwan Izzaudin Nik Him Bashir Mohammed Abubakar Hamdan Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 11 3 189 202 Investigation of the effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic field on the lifespan of the red blood cells in vitro <p>In recent years, studies have indicated that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may have harmful effects on human health. The effects on human health of the 50 Hz extremely low frequency EMF (ELF-EMF), which is often used in daily life, are still controversial. In our study, we investigated the in vitro effects of 50 Hz ELF-EMF on the lifespan of erythrocytes, which have no nucleus and organelles, and are therefore relatively more sensitive compared to other cells in the body to any harmful effect that may come from outside. Whole blood obtained from healthy volunteers was exposed to 50 Hz, 0.3 mT ELF-EMF over 35 days. After this time, erythrocytes (red blood cell, RBC) counts in blood, hematocrit (HCT) value, main corpuscular volume (MCV), and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF), an indicator of aging, were examined. At the end of 35 days, RBC and HCT were decreased while MCV and EOF were increased in the blood samples of both the EMF-exposed group and the non-exposed group. However, while there were no statistically significant changes in terms of RBC counts, and HCT between the two groups, it was observed that MCV and EOF increased significantly less in the EMF-exposed group compared to the non-exposed group. These results suggest that 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure does not affect the lifespan of erythrocytes in vitro, but it may extend erythrocytes’ lifecycles due to a reduction in osmotic fragility of the erythrocytes in in vivo conditions.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Sinem Elmas Onur Elmas Ahmet Zeybek ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-18 2021-01-18 11 3 177 188 Total phenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant and cytotoxicity assessment of Algerian Launaea glomerata (Cass.) Hook.f. extracts <p>El-Oued province (southeast Algeria), is located in a medicinal plant-rich area; <em>Launaea glomerata</em> (Cass.) Hook. f. is one among them which is a perennial herb spread widely in the arid regions of the Mediterranean Sea. The selection of the studied plant corresponds perfectly to the scientific needs due two reasons, firstly because these samples are used by the Algerian population as herbal remedies for primary health care, secondly, for the lack of published data on it. The aim of this investigation is to provide new data on quantities of phenols, which were estimated at 25.81 mg GAE/g extract and flavonoids (49.13 mg RE/g extract), and the determination of antioxidant activities by three ways (DPPH, CAT, ABTS), the results of IC<sub>50 </sub>equals to 98.07 mg TE/g extract for DPPH• and 286.5 mg eq. AG/g for ABTS assays, noted that the best inhibition was by the ABTS root. We also conducted a test for the inhibitory ability of extract against cancer cells tested on both human hepatocellular carcinoma (HePG2) and colon cells (HCT116), the results were negative. The data obtained in this work can be useful for the pharmaceutical industry, also used in the Algerian medicinal herbs database.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Imane Chelalba Abdelkrim Rebiai Hanane Debbeche Samir Begaa Mohammed Messaoudi Naima Benchikha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-09 2021-01-09 11 3 168 176 Withania somnifera against glutamate excitotoxicity and neuronal cell loss in a scopolamine-induced rat model of Alzheimer’s disease <p>Alzheimer’s disease, a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder with no prevention and cure, affecting nearly 50 million people worldwide. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system involved in 50% of basic brain functions, especially cortical and hippocampal regions, like memory, cognition, and learning. The glutamate-mediated toxicity is termed as excitotoxicity. The present study was aimed to determine whether the methanolic and water extracts of root from the medicinal plant, <em>Withania somnifera</em>, could decrease the glutamate excitotoxicity and its related neuronal cell loss in a scopolamine-induced animal model of Alzheimer's disease. The rats were randomly divided into different groups of 5 in each: normal control - treated orally with saline; AD model - injected intra peritoneally with scopolamine (2 mg/Kg body wt) alone to induce Alzheimer's disease; AD model rats treated orally with the methanolic extract (AD+ME-WS) (300 mg/Kg body wt), water extract (AD+WE-WS) (300 mg/Kg body wt), and donepezil hydrochloride, a standard control (AD+DZ) (5 mg/Kg body wt) for 30 consecutive days. Increased glutamate (Glu) levels and decreased glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity were reversed with <em>Withania somnifera</em> root extracts in both the cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions in scopolamine-induced Alzheimer's disease model rat brain. The histopathological studies of the same treatment also showed protection against neuronal cell loss in both regions. These results support the idea that these extracts could be effective for the reduction of brain damage by preventing glutamate excitotoxicity generated neuronal cell loss in the scopolamine-induced Alzheimer's disease model.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Gopalreddygari Visweswari Rita Christopher W. Rajendra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 11 3 156 167 Effect of different plant bio-stimulants in improving cucumber growth under soilless culture <p>There are more studies about plant bio-stimulants but no clear results about which is the best one in improving vegetable crops specially cucumber. The aim of this study is&nbsp; to screen the effect of various bio-stimulants in improving cucumber (<em>Cucumis sativus </em>L.) growth under soilless culture via root application by modifying coco-peat culture media substrate. In the present study, we tested fifteen treatments as follow: T1 -control (CK); T2 - 10 mM putrescine (Put); T3 - 250 ppm seaweed (Sea); T4 - 0.02 ppm meta-topolin (MT); T5 - 100 ppm naphthalene acetic acid (NAA); T6 - 400 ppm polyaspartic acid (PAS); T7 - 50 ppm sodium nitrophenolate (98% NIT); T8 - 100 ppm tryptophan (AAF); T9 - 1% fulvic acid (FUL); T10 - 10<sup>7</sup> CFU/ml <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> (BAS); T11 - 10<sup>6</sup> CFU/ml <em>Trichoderma</em> (TRI); T12 - 50 ppm alanine (ALa); T13 - 150 ppm salicylic acid (SA); T14 - 1 mM silicon (SiO<sub>2</sub>) and T15 - 0.001 ppm 24-epibrassinolide (EBR). The results obviously showed that using all bio-stimulants significantly increased cucumber growth parameters (plant height, stem diameter, leaves number, leaf area, shoot fresh weight, and root fresh weight). Seedlings Vigor Index (SVI) increased multifold compared with control by all treatments. The increase in cucumber seedlings vigor had a highly significant effect compared with control and the increase was 55.9% followed by 55.2% and 53.4% by Put, MT, and EBR treatments respectively. Our study concluded that the application of plant bio-stimulants can be used to modify coco-peat substrate with a positive effect on plant growth and improvement of cucumber plants under soilless culture.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Sayed Hussein Abdelgalil Esraa Abdallah Weijie Jiang Basheer Noman Sallam Hongjun Yu Peng Liu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-05 2021-01-05 11 3 146 155 Prevalence of common inhaled allergies in Erbil province, Kurdistan Region of Iraq <p>Nowadays, inhaled allergens are the main causes of allergic diseases, which are derived from different sources such as animal dander, grasses, tree, insects and fungi/molds. Identification and detection of allergens play a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of many allergic diseases. Aims were to determine the prevalence of most common inhaled allergens in Erbil province and determination the intensity of allergic response among allergic patients against 35 identified inhaled allergens items. A total number of 170 patients suffering from suspected inhalant allergy were checked in the present study. The study was carried out for patients who visited the private clinical sectors between 2018-2020 in Erbil province, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Determination of specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies was examined for suspected patients. The country-specific inhaled allergy profile “Euroline inhaled Iraq 1” (Catalog no: DP 313816011 E, IVD approved, and CE certified EUROLINE immunoblot), containing strip for 35 different inhalant allergens, has been used in this study. Positive specific IgE to inhaled allergens was detected in 22.35% of our suspected patients. Orchard grass (21.05%) was the most inhaled allergen in our 38 allergic patients, followed by the Meadow foxtail (15.78%), Cockroach German and Sweet vernal grass (13.15%). Based on the present study results, we conclude that the prevalence of inhaled allergy differed between men and women in different age groups. Our study reached that there were no associations between inhaled allergens and sex or age.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Shkar Rzgar K. Rostam Khattab Ahmed Mustafa Shekhany Harem Othman Smail ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-03 2021-01-03 11 3 134 145 Marine biomolecules: a promising approach in therapy and biotechnology <p>The marine environment is characterized by a wide diversity of microorganisms among which marine bacteria. To insure their survival in hostile conditions where they face high competition with pathogenic microorganisms, they produce various kinds of bioactive molecules within biofilms with unique structural and functional features. As example: marine peptides which provide a broad spectrum of antimicrobial, antitumoral, antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities, in addition to marine exopolysaccharides showing antifouling and antifungal activities, immunomodulatory properties, emulsion stabilization capacity with other various potentials. Some biofilms have shown a beneficial role for aquaculture, among which enhancement of growth performance and improvement of water quality, while others are threatening not only aquaculture and maritime fields, but also medicine and food industry. Thus, marine bioactive compounds are promising preventing agents for the establishment and growth of fouling microorganisms, which may be useful in different fields in order to decrease economic losses and avoid foodborne illnesses.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Asmaa Chbel Aurelio Serrano Delgado Abdelaziz Soukri Bouchra El Khalfi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 11 3 122 133 Organoids: inception and utilization of 3D organ models <p>Over the previous decade, one of the most exciting advancements in stem cell technology has been the development of organoid culture system. Organoids are new research tools created in-vitro, to form self-organizing 3-Dimensional structures that encompass some of the crucial characteristics of the represented organ. Organoids are grown from stem cells from an organ of interest. There are potentially as many types of organoids as there are different tissues and organs in a body. It is challenging for scientists to understand the underlying mechanism of biological processes with complex spatial cellular organization and tissue dynamics. Also, how they are disrupted in a disease is impossible to study in-vivo, but discovery of organoids is revolutionizing the fields of biology. Since success in these platforms will be restricted without the proficiency to alter the genomic content, genome engineering was also applied in recently discovered organoid cultures for correcting mutations. This review discusses the history, culturing methods, current achievements, and potential applications of this technique. These applications involve drug screening, personalized oncological medication, disease modeling, regenerative medicine, and developmental biology. The study of organoids has provided a novel platform in biological sciences, with new approaches for stem cell technology.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Akshatha Banadka Amesha Panwar Himakshi Bhagwanani Prognya Saha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-19 2020-12-19 11 3 99 121 Therapeutic challenges of COVID-19: strategies of empirical treatment <p>Coronavirus pandemic, is a progressing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), brought about by sever acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The episode was first distinguished in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The World Health Organization announced a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020, and a pandemic on 11 March. Scientists around the world are working to establish an effective treatment against SARS-CoV-2 to control the spread of this pandemic. In this review, we summarized the potential therapeutic strategies for treatment of COVID-19 and dividing the treatments to several categories including antiviral drugs which act on decreasing the viral load inside the body of patients, immunotherapy and immunomodulatory which relive the inflammatory process of viral infection.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Ahmed Hasan Mohammed Alzahraa Albatool Ibrahim Saber ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 11 3 88 98 Establishment of plant residues and inorganic fertilizer application for growth and yield of Vigna unguiculata (L.) in flood-affected cropland of Koshi Tappu Region, Eastern Nepal <p>Flood increases due to an increase in river overflow which affects on abiotic and biotic factors. The preliminary study of flood-affected crops was carried out in flood-affected cropland of Koshi Tappu Region of Eastern Nepal. For the experiment the plant residues of <em>Eichhornia crassipes</em> and <em>Sesbania rostrata</em> and inorganic fertilizer were selected to examine the growth and yield in <em>Vigna unguiculata</em>. The appropriate treatments for the production of <em>V. unguiculata</em> were analyzed. Before applying treatments, soil was collected and analyzed for physicochemical, microbial biomass and available nitrogen. Soil texture, soil moisture, water holding capacity and bulk density (BD) were calculated. The parameters such as soil pH organic carbon, organic matter and total nitrogen were determined. Soil microbe increases the significance of organic carbon and soil nitrogen is correlated for growth and yield. The results showed that the combined urea and plant residue increases the highest yield. And the <em>Eichhornia</em> compost represents the highest leaf area index and biomass. The total pod production was found in the <em>Echhhornia</em> compost. The dry weight per single pod in <em>Eichhornia</em> fresh was 7.82 g and in <em>Sesbania</em> fresh was 7.42 g. It proves that the land pattern is significant for the soil organic compounds. The experiment showed that the use of plant residues enhanced the increase of physicochemical properties of soil by adding the nutrients. The combined Urea + <em>Eichhornia</em> supports the best growth and development of the plant.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Niroj Paudel Samjhana Subedi Tej Narayan Mandal Bishnu Dev Das ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 11 3 75 87