European Journal of Biological Research <p><strong>ISSN: 2449-8955</strong><br><strong><a title="MNiSW points: 11" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MNiSW points 2016: 11<br></a></strong><strong><a title="ICV: 100.00" href=",p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICV 2018: 100.00</a></strong><br><strong>Acceptance rate: 44% (2019)</strong></p> en-US (Joanna Bródka) (Joanna Bródka) Mon, 23 Aug 2021 22:22:23 +0200 OJS 60 Organ dependency variation of the chemical composition of Ziziphus lotus volatile fractions <p>The extended application fields of the essential oils keep them a subject of interest. In this study, we investigated the aerial part essential oil and the fruit essential oil of the wild plant&nbsp;<em>Ziziphus lotus</em>, collected from the southern region of Tunisia. These essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus showed an extraction yield of 0.013% and 0.0046% respectively. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the samples using GC-MS/GC-FID revealed two distinct compositions. Apocarotenoid derivatives characterized the essential oil of the aerial part; the major compound was hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (23.2%) followed by geranylacetone (12.5%) and cis-hexenyl-3-benzoate (11.1%). While the abundance of fatty acid marked the fruit essential oil. The noticed major compounds were 2-pentadecanone (16.9%), dodecanoic acid ethyl ester (14.5%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (13.0%). Such chemical composition may explain the traditional use of&nbsp;<em>Ziziphus lotus</em>&nbsp;as a drug to treat various pathologies.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Touka Letaief, Stefania Garzoli, Elisa Ovidi, Antonio Tiezzi, Chokri Jeribi, Manef Abderrabba, Jamel Mejri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Oct 2021 17:07:57 +0200 Antifungal and antioxidant activities of Artemisia herba-alba Asso <p><em>Artemisia herba-alba</em> Asso was used since ancient times as a painkiller of gynecological diseases and in the Moroccan folk medicine to treat chronic disease like diabetes, arterial hypertension. The genus of <em>Artemisia</em> was marked as a member of the family of <em>Asteraceae</em>. White wormwood was mentioned also on the list of the flora of Tell Atlas (Oran) subsector as an abundance species with 93 specimens. Chemical analysis of essential oils obtained from this plant by hydrodistillation, revealed the presence of different chemical species, contains santonin, lactones of sesquiterpenic acids. Flavonoids, coumarins, and tannins were found in extracts. In the most cases, there was no toxic effect observed on animals after receiving repeated or single doses of <em>A. herba-alba</em> Asso either in the form of extracts or essential oils. Essential oils, organic and aqueous extracts of the same plant have shown antioxidant properties against free radicals measured by DPPH, β-carotene-bleaching and metal chelating power tests. There is a great potency of this plant by interacting of its compounds with constituents of fungal cells; chitin, wall of cell, membrane ergosterol and eukaryotic nucleus, and by way of consequence disrupting their synthesis. It is well-known, that the hyphal growth of fungal pathogens was inhibited by sesquiterpenes lactones. This plant seemed potent in term of biological activities and can be used as potential alternative remedies for the treatment of many infectious and oxidative diseases.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Asma Boukhennoufa, Souhila Benmaghnia, Yamina Maizi, Aicha Meddah Tir Touil, Boumediene Meddah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Oct 2021 16:07:09 +0200 Diversity and extracellular enzyme profiles of yeasts on organic and fungicide treated strawberries <p>Since yeasts can survive under variable environmental conditions using different food sources they have a wide distribution in nature. Fruits are suitable living spaces for yeasts and other microorganisms due to their high and different sugar contents. Strawberry fruit as well as other fruits are very sensitive to pathogenic fungi. Due to their residues on fruits, limitations on the use of fungicides have led to increased use of microorganisms with antagonistic effects as biological control agents. The biological agents to be used are selected mainly from the microorganisms found in the natural microbiota of the fruit. Therefore, in this study yeast biota on strawberry fruit collected from fungicide treated (Klorzon and Topas) and organic fields was determined using molecular identification methods. In addition, extracellular enzyme profiles of the identified yeast species were determined by the APIZYM-based system. There was no difference in the diversity of yeast species on strawberries collected from fungicide treated and organic fields, but the yeast density on organic strawberries was greater than fungicide treated fruits. The identified yeast species on fruits were determined as <em>Metschnikowia pulcherrima</em> (61.7%), <em>Hanseniaspora uvarum</em> (34.0%) and <em>Wickerhamomyces pijperi</em> (4.3%). <em>W. pijperi</em> yeast species was reported on strawberry fruit in our study first time. It was determined that <em>H. uvarum</em> and <em>W. pijperi</em> yeast species showed no α-glucosidase enzyme activity. All yeast strains showed industrially important β-glucosidase enzyme activity.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Tülay Turgut Genç, Melih Günay ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 29 Sep 2021 22:19:26 +0200 A review on CRISPR-Cas9 and its role in cancer immunotherapy <p>Since the discovery of CRISPR, the field of Molecular Genetics has revolutionized and has opened so many different doors to improve molecular techniques and interpret the early microbial life forms. The diversity found within the CRISPR-Cas systems has led to its application in various fields like diagnostics, medicine and also has given rise to an interesting field of genome engineering. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Emanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna for their work on CRISPR-Cas9 and its application as a genome engineering tool. Scientists have been using the CRISPR-Cas9 system to edit genomes and cure various genetic diseases associated with mutations in the human genome. One such application is the use of CRISPR-Cas9 in cancer immunotherapy. The entire world has been known to be affected by the rapidly dividing cellular disease of cancer. Since cancer cells have different morphology, they are attacked by our immune system. Cancer cells possess the ability to camouflage themselves and avoid these immune responses and thereby proliferate and metastasize to a much greater extent. Scientists have been able to genetically engineer T-cells with the help of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing tool which has shown promising results in the course of immunotherapy. On the 4th of June 2021, in India, the first patient underwent CAR-T Cell therapy setting a milestone for future treatments. In this review, we aim to evaluate the potential and diversity of the profound CRISPR-Cas systems and the application of CRISPR-Cas9 in immunotherapy for refractory cancer.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Rashi A. Bhavsar, Vishwa Maharajan, Evan Joseph, Salai S. Sumukhi, Akshatha Banadka, Kokila Srinivasa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 24 Sep 2021 23:30:45 +0200 Binding of the antibacterial drug clofoctol and analogues to the Cdc7/Dbf4 kinase complex. A computational study <p>Drugs targeting the cell division cycle kinase 7 (Cdc7) are actively searched for the treatment of different pathologies such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cancer. Cdc7 interacts with multiple protein partners, including protein Dbf4 to form the Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) complex which regulates DNA replication initiation. Cdc7 and its activator Dbf4 are over-expressed in some cancers. The antibacterial drug clofoctol (CFT), used to treat respiratory tract infections, has been shown to block Cdc7 kinase activity, acting as a non-ATP-competitive inhibitor, capable of arresting DNA synthesis in cancer cells. We have modeled the interaction of CFT with the DDK complex and identified four potential binding sites at the interface of the Cdc7/Dbf4 heterodimer: at T109 and D128 (Cdc7), V220 and I330 (Dbf4). CFT behaves as an interfacial protein-protein inhibitor of the Cdc7/Dbf4 complex, limiting drug access to the proximal kinase site. Six CFT analogues have been tested for binding to the kinase complex. Two potent binders were analyzed in detail. The CFT structure was modulated to replace the two chlorine atoms with hydroxyl groups. The empirical potential energy of interaction (ΔE) calculated with hydroxylated compounds points to a more favorable interaction with the DDK complex, in particular at D128 site with the compound bearing two <em>ortho</em>-OH groups. Our work contributes to the identification of novel DDK inhibitors.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Gérard Vergoten, Christian Bailly ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 24 Sep 2021 22:52:32 +0200 The Biodiversity of the oak groves of the Tlemcen Mountains, Algeria. Phytoecological aspects <p>The objective of this study is to know the influence of environmental conditions on the distribution of oak species in the Tlemcen Mountains. We made a bioclimatic and floristic study on four stations located on the mountain ranges of the Tlemcen Mountains. This study was carried out, taking into account the ecological aspect oriented towards the presence of oak species within the four study stations. The main ecological gradients governing the ecological trends of oak forests in this area have been characterized. The ecological dynamics of oak taxa within the local floristic procession for each station was analyzed by Mintab 16 software according to factorial discrimination of correspondences (A.FC), which led us to highlight the most influential ecological gradients.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Nour El Houda Derbal, Linda Abi-Ayad, Bahaeddine Ghezlaoui Bendi-Djelloul ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 24 Sep 2021 22:29:31 +0200 Ethnobotanical molluscicides <p>Molluscan are always responsible for human threat direct or indirect ways. A large number of molluscan serve as intermediate host for fasciolosis and schistosomiasis. These both diseases has great outbreak over exploiting the human health and economy. Their prevalence has been increasing worldwide due in large part to programme of water resource development, and poor hygienic conditions. The freshwater gastropods (snails) are the intermediate host for the larval stages of these two trematodes worms where they completed asexual phases of different development stages. Large numbers of treatment are available to tackle the problem of these two neglected tropical disease (NTDs). One of the easiest methods to break the transmission of these diseases is to de-link the intermediate host from helminths life cycle by the use of molluscicides. Currently there is an increased interest to identified the plant and explore their therapeutic potential as a molluscicides. Since the biomolluscicide are the safest, eco-friendly, fast biodegradability and cost effective method for molluscan control as compared to other synthetic counterparts, that are high imported cost, toxicity in non-target biota’s, and developing resistance in molluscan. This review is generally concerned with the efforts being made to concise the resources based on the ethnobotanical molluscicides to control the pest population and provide the data source of new researcher to explore the most promising candidates of nature i.e. plant molluscicides, as they are very effective tool for integrated vector management programme yet harmless to other non-target aquatic biota’s.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Divya Chaturvedi, Neelam Soni, Vinay Kumar Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 18 Sep 2021 22:20:43 +0200 Phytochemical profile, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of fumitory (Fumaria capreolata L.) from Algeria <p>Fumitory or <em>Fumaria capreolata</em> L. is a medicinal plant, spontaneous and widely distributed in North Africa, particularly in Algeria. It has been recognized for centuries for its therapeutic virtues, and it is used in traditional medicine in the treatment of hepatobiliary diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and in the treatment of skin diseases. The phytochemical screening carried out on the aerial part of the species <em>F. capreolata</em> L., revealed the richness of this plant in secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, catechic tannins, sterols and terpenes. On the other hand, we noticed the absence of cardinolides, leuco-anthocyanins, quinones and starch in all parts of the plant. Quantitative spectrophotometric analysis allowed us to detect the levels of total polyphenols using the reagent of Folin-Ciocalteu, according to the results obtained we find that the species <em>F. capreolata</em> is rich in these compounds (14.27 ± 1.65 mg GAE/g). The evaluation of the antioxidant activity was carried out using the DPPH method, indicated that the ethanolic extract of <em>F. capreolata</em> L. showed significant antioxidant activity, with an IC<sub>50</sub> = 0.27 mg/ml. And it also has a strong inhibitory activity of the coupled oxidation of linoleic acid and β-carotene, with a percentage of 88.46 ± 1.02% at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml. In addition, the crude extract of <em>F. capreolata</em> L., also exhibits a good iron reduction capacity, with a maximum optical density of 0.349 at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Ismahene Sofiane, Ratiba Seridi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Sep 2021 23:12:19 +0200 SHERLOCK and DETECTR CRISPR-CAS systems as better diagnostic tools for COVID-19 <p>SARS-CoV-2, the mighty manslayer, responsible for COVID-19, has currently killed over 1.54 million people worldwide and 141,000 in India alone. It has affected around 67 million people globally and 9.68 million in India. It has quarantined the whole world. Doctors and scientists are working around the clock to save the world from this deadly virus. Since the number of patients is increasing rapidly, it is essential to test as many suspects as possible. But with the diagnostic tests that are being used currently, the polymerase chain reaction, antibody detection (Serological tests), Rapid Diagnostic tests (RDT), antigen tests and Isothermal Amplification assays are time consuming and there is a high chance that the test might come back with the wrong results. SHERLOCK and DETECTR are CRISPR-based diagnostic tool that were recently worked upon and showed very promising results. The test results come back in less than 40 minutes and the tests are far more accurate than all of the current diagnostics which makes them far more efficient than the others.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Salai S. Sumukhi, Evan Joseph, Akshatha Banadka ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 23 Aug 2021 22:19:56 +0200 Use of nanomaterials for the immobilization of industrially important enzymes <p>Immobilization enables enzymes to be held in place so that they can be easily separated from the product when needed and can be used again. Conventional methods of immobilization include adsorption, encapsulation, entrapment, cross linking and covalent binding. However, conventional methods have several drawbacks including reduced stability, loss of biomolecules, less enzyme loading or activity and limited diffusion. The aim of this study is the evaluation of importance of nanomaterials for the immobilization of industrially important enzymes. Nano materials are now in trend for the immobilization of different enzymes due to their physiochemical properties. Gold nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, nano diamonds, graphene, carbon nanotubes and others are used for immobilization. Among covalent and non-covalent immobilization of enzymes involving both single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes, non-covalent immobilization with functionalized carbon nanotubes is superior. Therefore, enzymes immobilized with nanomaterials possess greater stability, retention of catalytic activity and reusability of enzymes.</p> Zarish Fatima, Sameer Quazi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 30 Jul 2021 21:05:02 +0200 Ethnomedicinal knowledge on Rai community of Ramprasadrai rural municipality, Bhojpur district, eastern Nepal <p>In Nepal, about 7000 vascular plants are noted. Some plants are medicinally important, so need to be explore for their medicinal value. Primary data for this research was collected by interviewing respondents. Secondary data was collected by reviewing early published research works on the internet. All herbaria were identified with the help of villagers, books, the internet, and by visiting of National Herbarium and Plant Laboratories (NHPL), Nepal. 35 plant species belonging to 28 families and 35 genera were documented as medicinal plants in the study area. Among these species, more plants were found to be herbs (51%) and the most useful parts were leaves (27%). Throat pain was the most common disease cured by more plant species (8 spp.). The most-used plant species were&nbsp;<em>Acorus calamus, Terminalia&nbsp;chebula, Zanthoxylum armatum, Swertia chirayita, Phyllanthus emblica, Ageratina adenophora, Drymaria cordata, Curcuma caesia, Amomum subulatum,</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Cinnamomum camphora</em>. The Rai community of this area is rich in knowledge of traditional medicines. Elderly persons are found to be more thinkable about the curative properties of plants, methods of preparation, and diseases diagnosis than young people. Ethnomedicinal knowledge is important for various diseases in the Rai community. Conservation and preserve these plants for future generation as well for the reasons of traditional knowledge is going extinct gradually. The main purpose of this research was to find out the medicinal plants used by the Rai community of Khoksik village in Ramprasadrai Rural Municipality-8 in Bhojpur district.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Som Prasad Paudyal, Ananta Rai, Bishnu Dev Das, Niroj Paudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Jul 2021 14:30:39 +0200 Phytochemical characterization, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis (L.) extracts from the Tiaret region <p>This work aims the valorization of a medicinal plant known by its traditional use, <em>Salvia officinalis</em> L. (Lamiaceae), by phytochemical characterization and evaluation of the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of their extracts. The antioxidant activity was assessed by the DPPH method and the antibacterial potential was determined by the diffusion method. The quantitative determination revealed that the ethanolic extract has a content of 8.04% for polyphenolic content and 17.4 % for flavonoids. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of <em>S. officinalis </em>showed that the ethanolic extract of <em>S. officinalis</em> presented the higher antiradical effect manifested with IC<sub>50</sub> of 0.106±0.001 mg/ml. In addition, the antibacterial activity showed the strong capacity of <em>S. officinalis</em> methanolic extract to inhibit <em>B. subtilis</em>, <em>M. luteus</em>, <em>E. coli</em> and <em>S. aureus </em>with a diameter inhibition zone of 27.06±1.49; 15.43±2.23; 11.6±0.52 and 11.5±2.17 mm respectively. While the activity of the ethanolic extract was 26.62±2.97 mm against <em>B. subtilis</em>, 16.51±2.36 mm against <em>M. luteus</em>, 13.62±0.55 mm for <em>S. aureus</em>, <em>P. aeruginosa</em> (12.30±1.59 mm). The macrodilution method (MIC) showed a range of 625 to &gt;5000 µg/ml. The study of the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of extracts of <em>S. officinalis </em>suggested that this plant represented a natural source of bioactive molecules with very important biological activities.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Rachida Bouteldja, Radhouane Doucene, Hebib Aggad, Fatima Zohra Abdi, Hamza Belkhodja, Mustapha Abdali, Khaled Zidane, Siham Abaid ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 23 Jul 2021 21:08:11 +0200 Polyploidy promotes Harderian glands function under photo-oxidative stress in desert rodents <p>The presence of higher-ploidy cells within Harderian glands (HG) of desert rodents could be explained as an adaptive response to mitigate the effects of photo-oxidative stress. The principally products of HG are porphyrins, pigmentary accretions which interact with the intense luminosity of the Sahara and, then produce reactive oxygen species. Thus, the gland permanently suffers a physiological oxidative stress, with a great number of sings of degeneration, but without compromising the gland integrity. In this work, we used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine the morphological features of cell ploidy in HG of three species of Gerbillidae. <em>Psamomys obesus</em>, <em>Meriones lybicus</em> and <em>Gerbillus tarabuli</em>. The results showed that, the glands of these species are large in size and lobulated. The glandular parenchyma consists of tubulo-alveoli surrounding a lumen into which the secretions are discharged. Frequently cells are binucleated and multinucleated. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the presence of secretory cells with conspicuous nuclei and sometimes with micronuclei. Binuclear cells are created by acytokinetic mitosis. No cell membranes within the cytoplasm are observed. Our results provide morphological evidences, that HG of desert rodents employ polyploidy as cellular adaptive response to extreme arid environment.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Ouanassa Saadi-Brenkia, Saida Lounis, Nadia Hanniche ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 12 Jul 2021 15:56:27 +0200 Tissue culture approaches to improve nutritional quality and stress response in peanut <p>Peanut, also known as groundnut (<em>Arachis hypogaea</em> L.), is an annual leguminous oil crop cultivated worldwide for food and fodder. Several stress factors critically diminish the productivity and nutritional quality of this protein-rich plant. <em>In vitro</em> cell and tissue culture systems have been used in many plant species to rapidly propagate large numbers of plants, create somaclonal variation, produce bioactive compounds, and enable genetic engineering. Tissue culture based mutagenesis and genetic engineering are particularly attractive for crop improvement. Tissue culture techniques have been implicated over the years to improve peanut, despite the general recalcitrant nature of this species to <em>in vitro</em> culture. In this manuscript, we review the progress that has been made on <em>in vitro</em> culture of peanut, and its application to improve nutritional quality and resistance to major biotic and abiotic stresses in peanut.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Amit Das, Juran C. Goyali, Aleya Ferdausi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 12 Jul 2021 15:14:24 +0200 Types of face coverings (masks) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) <p>The ongoing pandemic has been increasing slowly and steadily across the world. The SARS-CoV-2 spreads through droplet disseminated from infected persons via coughing and/or sneezing onto the face, nasopharyngeal, and oropharyngeal mucosa. In order to prevent the transmission of coronavirus disease, WHO and public health officials made policies, advised the health workers and public to wear face coverings (masks). The nature of masks depends upon the source, material, structure and particulate efficacies. The main objective of this study is to provide information about efficacies of different types of masks used during COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Summer Anjum, Tajamul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 04 Jul 2021 10:35:07 +0200 Physicochemical characterization and evaluation of the antioxidant activities of essential oil extracted from Eucalyptus globulus <p>This work was conducted as part of evaluation of the antioxidant activities of the essential oil extracted from a plant that belongs to the family of Myrtaceae: <em>Eucalyptus globulus</em>. The extraction of the essential oil was carried out by hydrodistillation and followed by extraction yield determination and physicochemical analysis. Then, the evaluation of the antioxidant activity was performed according to the method of DPPH free radical scavenging and the determination of total antioxidant capacity. The extraction of the essential oil gave a content of 0.41 ± 0.01%. The analytical study of the physicochemical properties of the essential oil of <em>E. globulus</em> showed that this plant presented an essential oil of acceptable quality and in conformity with the standard. The results of the evaluation of the antioxidant activity showed that this essential oil has interesting antiradical properties. It was manifested by a low value of IC<sub>50</sub> (0.017 mg /ml) compared to the standard antioxidant (ascorbic acid). It was noticed that the essential oil of <em>E. globulus </em>has an antioxidant capacity of the order of 19 ± 0.01 mg AAE/g. This result showed that the essential oil of <em>E. globulus</em> has a powerful antioxidant power by reducing phosphomolybdate. Thus, the essential oil of <em>E. globulus</em> appeared effective in reducing oxidative reactions.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Hamza Belkhodja, Djilali Bouhadi, Bouchra Medjadel, Amel Brakna ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 25 Jun 2021 22:32:08 +0200 Patterns of plant use in religious offerings of Odisha <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: 200%;">The study was conducted within the course of two years (2016-2018) to explore the indigenous knowledge and traditional utilization pattern of plant species for the worship of the goddess Durga in coastal districts of Odisha, India. This article aims to document traditional methods of use of plant species which provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity. The information was gathered from literature as well as field-collected data and interviewed informants. Altogether 53 plant species belonging to 31 families and 49 genera are recorded. Roots, stems, leaves, inflorescence, seeds, and fruit are the most commonly used part for the worship of the goddess Durga. Most of the plants have curative properties. These plant species have been instrumental for indigenous people in providing substantial livelihood support. The present study may be used to motivate the general public to cultivate, preserve, and judicious utilization of such important plants for the conservation of nature and ecological research.</p> <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: 200%;">&nbsp;<strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Sarat Kumar Sahu, Taranisen Panda ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 07 Jun 2021 17:22:42 +0200 Isolation and characterization of rhizobia from the root nodule of some cultivated legume crops <p>Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as a result of mutual symbiosis between the rhizobia and the cultivated legume have a vital role to balance the nutrient paucity in the soil. Modern researches shows that the BNF can be the important factors regulating and maintaining the defendable agriculture and ensuring food security especially in the developing countries. The use of artificial nitrogen fertilizers to rise crop yield is an internment farming practice, despite its unfavorable effects and hazards to the environment and human population which can be substituted by rhizobial inoculants as a bio-fertilizers. The present study was aimed to isolate and characterize the <em>Rhizobium</em> from the nine different selected legumes. The <em>Rhizobium</em> bacterium was isolated from the nodules of the nine legume plants on YEMA medium which was found to show white translucent, circular convex colonies and characterized by the non-absorption of Congo red dye. The strains were found to be fast growing except for the rhizobial strains isolated from the Soybean and cowpeas (<em>Bradyrhizobium</em>) which were slow growing. The various biochemical tests of the isolated strains like catalase, bromothymol blue, Urea hydrolysis were favorable while Glucose-Peptone Agar (GPA), starch hydrolysis, Citrate utilization were found to be negative. For the ability to utilize the 2% NaCl, the strains TFR showed positive growth, the strains PSR, PhVR, VUR showed the poor tolerance while the rest of the strains showed no tolerance to the 2% NaCl.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Som Prasad Paudyal, Birendra Kunwar, Niroj Paudel, Bishnu Dev Das ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 07 Jun 2021 15:26:27 +0200 Comparative antimicrobial study of Vernonia amygdalina Del. and Lawsonia inermis L. against microorganisms from aqueous milieu <p>Limitations have been concurrent with the use of antibiotics in chemotherapy. Hence, antimicrobial potency of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> and <em>Lawsonia inermis</em> on some selected multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria and fungi isolated from stream were compared. The phytochemical evaluation and antimicrobial susceptibility test of MAR bacteria and fungi was achieved via CLSI reference standard of perfloxacin (10 µg) and ketoconazole (150 mg/ml) with susceptibility index (&gt;14.00 mm and &gt;15.00 mm, respectively) as control for bacteria and fungi respectively. Saponin and steroids were present in both <em>V. amygdalina</em> and <em>L. inermis </em>ethanol extracts but alkaloids were present in <em>V. amygdalina</em> and absent in <em>L. inermis</em> ethanol extracts. The ethanol extract of <em>L. inermis</em> had higher percentage recovery yield (16.13%) to that of <em>V. amygdalina</em> (10.78%). Synergistic effect of mixture of <em>V. amygdalina</em> and <em>L. inermis</em> ethanol extracts was displayed against <em>Alcaligenes faecalis</em> (29.00 mm) and <em>P. penneri</em> (20.00 mm). The MIC and MBC of <em>V. amygdalina</em> ethanol extract against <em>A. feacalis</em> was both 50 mg/ml. The combined mixture of <em>V. amygdalina</em> and <em>L. inermis </em>ethanol extracts showed 12.67 mm against <em>A. fumigatus.</em> This study revealed the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of <em>V. amygdalina</em> and <em>L. inermis</em> extracts in the treatment of related water-borne infections<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Olubukola Olayemi Olusola-Makinde, Michael Tosin Bayode ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 07 May 2021 15:54:00 +0200 Use of statistical analysis to monitor novel coronavirus-19 cases in Jammu and Kashmir, India <p>Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been increasing slowly and steadily in all the districts of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is essential for the government and health management system to monitor the districts affected due to COVID-19. The main objective of this study is to ascertain and categorize the COVID-19 affected districts into real clusters based on similarities within a cluster and differences among clusters in order to imply standard operating procedures (SOPs) policies, decisions, medical facilities, etc. could be improved for reducing the risk of infection and death and optimize the deployment of resources for preventing subsequent outbreaks.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> Digvijay Pandey, Tajamul Islam, Junaid A. Magray, Aadil Gulzar, Shabir A. Zargar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 09 Apr 2021 21:53:02 +0200