MicroMedicine 2021-03-26T22:23:26+01:00 Joanna Bródka Open Journal Systems <p><strong>ISSN 2449-8947</strong><br><strong><a title="MNiSW points: 8" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MNiSW points 2016: 8</a></strong><br><strong><a title="ICV: 85.54" href=",p24783445,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICV 2018: 85.54</a></strong></p> Sweet basil leaves as adjunct therapy for stage 1 and 2 hypertension: a pilot clinical trial 2020-11-15T22:40:06+01:00 Karanjit Ratta Niketa M. Rana Shalini R. Rajasekaran Genevieve D. Tupas <p><em>Ocimum basilicum</em> L. (Sweet Basil) is a medicinal herb used in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of disease conditions including hypertension, and has well established antihypertensive effects among renovascular hypertensive rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of <em>O. basilicum</em> as adjunct in the management of stage 1 and 2 hypertensive patients. A double blind-randomized controlled trial was performed, with participants (n=24) randomized into a control and treatment group. Participants randomized into the control group (n=12) were given their prescribed antihypertensive medication plus placebo while those in the treatment group (n=12) were given their antihypertensive medication plus <em>Ocimum basilicum</em> L. capsules containing 128 mg of dried, powderized leaves once a day. Participants’ blood pressure (BP) was measured at baseline, 1 week, and 2 weeks of drug administration and the Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) calculated. Results showed that systolic and diastolic BP in the treatment group measured from baseline, one and two weeks of drug administration are significantly different, whereas the control group had insignificant findings. Furthermore, the MAP in the control group (105.25±9.52 mm/Hg, 104.08±8.45 mm/Hg and 104.47±8.85 mmHg) were comparable while that in the treatment group (106.47±6.65 mm/Hg,100.89±9.99 mm/Hg, and 97.14±9.96 mm/Hg) showed significant lowering (p=&lt;0.0001) over time by Repeated Measures-Anova with Bonferroni’s post-hoc test. The significant findings in this study support the antihypertensive action of <em>Ocimum basilicum</em> L. among humans which warrant further exploration.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-01-03T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Patterns of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis from tuberculosis patients in Ibadan Nigeria 2020-11-24T12:10:11+01:00 Olutayo Israel Falodun Idowu Simeon Cadmus Obasola Ezekiel Fagade <p>The success of the global tuberculosis (TB) control program has been threatened with drug resistant strains emergence; especially the Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Despite that Nigeria is one of the countries with high tuberculosis burden, little is known on the magnitude of MDR-TB in the country. This study was to determine drug resistant patterns of <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em> isolated from patients that attended Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) centres in Ibadan, Nigeria. Sputum samples collected from confirmed TB patients were processed using the N-acetyl L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide decontamination method. Direct drug susceptibility test was carried out against rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambuthol and streptomycin. Out of the 319 samples collected, 149 (46.7%) were culture positive and susceptibility test was completed for 101 (67.8%) isolates, out of which any resistance and mono-resistance to rifampicin was 23.8% and 8.9% respectively. In all 11.9% MDR-TB was observed comprising 30.8% (acquired), and 8.3% (primary) while, 3.96% showed resistance to all tested drugs. The patterns of MDR-TB in this study indicates that active case findings as well as expansion of drug susceptibility testing is required to effectively control TB, drug resistant strains and to forestall the transmission and spread of the drug-resistant TB in the society.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2020-11-24T12:10:11+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antimicrobial activity of crude henna extract against Gram-positive bacteria 2021-02-28T23:16:01+01:00 Samira M. S. Ibrahim Chiman S. Rasool Asaad Ab. Al-Asady <p>Henna plant has been used in herbal medicine for ages, but the medical uses of this plant as antimicrobial agent had not been well discussed. In this study we aim to examine the effect of ethanolic extract of local Basra henna leaves on Gram-positive bacteria species. Also, to assess the antibacterial properties of henna crude extract in vitro and compare them with antibiotics. <em>Lawsonia inermis</em> (henna) leaves were extracted with ethanol via using the solvent extraction technique. The pathogens were isolated from wound samples obtained from hospitalized patients in two different hospitals in Duhok city. Culture of thirty isolates had been recognized by routine methods. Different concentrations of ethanol crude extract were acquired and bio-assayed in vitro to inhibit the growth of five human pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria. Agar well diffusion assay was used for achieving henna antibiotic activity. Moreover, antibiotics susceptibility test was done by the disk diffusion method using Muller-Hinton agar medium. The growth of all tested bacteria was suppressed to various degrees by increasing the concentration of the extract. The data has revealed that <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> was more sensitive than other examined isolates, where the diameter zone of inhibition were ranging from 16-27, 14-25, and 8-18 mm for <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em>, <em>Lactobacillus</em> spp. and <em>Streptococcus pneumoniae</em> respectively. The antimicrobial activity of henna extract indicates that it is suitable for being used as significant certain medications. Consequently, henna is active to serve as an anti-bacterial agent against multi-drug resistant Gram-positive bacteria.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2021-02-28T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of Hepatitis B among adults attending selected government hospitals in Nigeria 2021-03-26T22:23:26+01:00 Babajide Bamidele Ajayi Tinuola Tokunbo Adebolu Muftau Kolawole Oladunmoye <p>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major public health problems globally. This study aims to determine the frequency of occurrence of HBV infection and associated risk factors for acquisition of the disease in clinically-ill adult patients attending selected government hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria. Seven hundred and sixty-seven (767) ill adult individuals attending five medical out-patient Departments of the hospitals who consented to the study were recruited for the investigation. A structured questionnaire which covered sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors were used for primary information. Positivity for HBV was determined using a quality assured commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for the detection of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Of the 767 patients, 11.0% were positive for HBsAg. The prevalence rate for HBsAg positivity was higher in the males (13.5%) than the females (9.3%) (pv = 0.043). The study also revealed the highest prevalence rate of HBsAg infection among the age group 19 – 39 years with mean percentage of 17.5%. Alcohol consumption, history of HBV in the family, multiple sex partners, history of injections in road side chemist shops, and intake of traditional herbs showed significant association respectively (p &lt; 0.05), however no significant association among individuals with history of HBV vaccination, blood transfusion and tattoo/tribal mark (p &gt; 0.05). Conclusively, this study gives information on the prevalence rate of HBV in the community sampled to be 11.0%. This shows that HBV is endemic in Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria.</p> 2021-03-26T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##