A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): current status and challenges

  • Nilay Vishal Singh Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur-273009, UP, India
  • Harshita Kaushik Department of Mathematics & Statistics, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur-273009, UP, India
  • Vinay Kumar Singh Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur-273009, UP, India
Keywords: Coronavirus, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Variant, ACE-2, Vaccines, Genome


In December, 2019 a new public health crisis threatened the world with the emergence of new zoonotic virus, the 2019 novel coronavirus. SARS-Cov-2 or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 belongs to the family of coronaviruses named for the crown-like spikes on its surfaces. SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019), a contagious viral infection that attacks primarily throat and lungs causing pneumonia-like symptoms. It is speculated that SARS-CoV-2 seem to have come from a bat, but the intermediate reservoir is still unknown. This review will address SARS-CoV-2 structure, clinical features, SARS-CoV-2 genome and its different variant, diagnosis, and treatment and also gives a bird's eye view on the epidemiology and pathology based on current evidence.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6561397


Download data is not yet available.


1. Singhal T. A review of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Indian J Pediatrics. 2020; 87(4): 281-286.
2. He F, Deng Y, Li W. Coronavirus disease 2019: What we know? J Med Virol. 2020; 92(7): 719-725.
3. Andrews MA, Areekal B, Rajesh KR, Krishnan J, Suryakala R, Krishnan B, et al. First confirmed case of COVID-19 infection in India: A case report. Indian J Med Res. 2020; 151(5): 490.
4. Coronavirus (COVID-19) statistics. 2021. https://www.bing.com/search?q=corona+virus+(covid+19+)+ statistics&cvid=059301049c18493f955bffc60588046e&aqs=edge.1.69i57j0j69i60l3j0l2.20956j0j1&pglt=299&FORM=ANNTA1&PC=U531. Accessed 29 April 2021.
5. Cucinotta D, Vanelli M. WHO declares COVID-19 a pandemic. Acta Bio Medica Atenei Parmensis. 2020; 91(1): 157.
6. Contini C, Di NM, Barp N, Bonazza A, De GR., Tognon M, Rubino S. The novel zoonotic COVID-19 pandemic: An expected global health concern. J Infect Develop Countr. 2020; 14(03): 254-264.
7. Weiss SR, Navas-Martin S. Coronavirus pathogenesis and the emerging pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2005; 69(4): 635-664.
8. Chan JFW, Lau SKP, Woo PCY. The emerging novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: the “knowns” and “unknowns”. J Formosan Med Assoc. 2013; 112(7): 372-381.
9. Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang, L, Zhang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020; 579(7798): 270-273.
10. Chan-Yeung, M, Xu RH. SARS: epidemiology. Respirology. 2003; 8: S9-S14.
11. Gretebeck LM, Subbarao K. Animal models for SARS and MERS coronaviruses. Curr Opin Virol. 2015; 13: 123-129.
12. Schoeman D, Fielding BC. Coronavirus envelope protein: current knowledge. Virol J. 2019; 16(1): 1-22.
13. Kirchdoerfer RN, Cottrell CA, Wang NP J, Yassine HM, Turner HL, et al. Pre-fusion structure of a human coronavirus spike protein. Nature. 2016; 531(7592): 118-121.
14. Gupta MK, Vemula S, Donde R, Gouda G, Behera L, Vadde R. In-silico approaches to detect inhibitors of the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus envelope protein ion channel. J Biomol Struct Dynam. 2020: 1-11.
15. Lissenberg A, Vrolijk MM, Van Vliet ALW, Langereis MA, de Groot-Mijnes JDF, Rottier PJM, De Groot RJ. Luxury at a cost? Recombinant mouse hepatitis viruses expressing the accessory hemagglutinin esterase protein display reduced fitness in vitro. J Virol. 2005; 79(24): 15054-15063.
16. Boopathi S, Poma AB, Kolandaivel P. Novel 2019 coronavirus structure, mechanism of action, antiviral drug promises and rule out against its treatment. J Biomol Struct Dynam. 2020: 1-10.
17. Kaushik H, Singh VK. Mathematics of Covid-19 in India and their possible control by Allium sativum (l.). Asian J Adv Med Sci. 2020: 21-27.
18. Cheng ZJ, Shan J. Novel coronavirus: where we are and what we know. Infection. 2019; 48(2): 155-163.
19. He Y, Zhou Y, Liu S, Kou Z, Li W, Farzan M, Jiang S. Receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV spike protein induces highly potent neutralizing antibodies: implication for developing subunit vaccine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004; 324(2): 773-781.
20. Du L, Zhao G, He Y, Guo Y, Zheng BJ, Jiang S, Zhou Y. Receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV spike protein induces long-term protective immunity in an animal model. Vaccine. 2007; 25(15): 2832-2838.
21. Li W, MooreMJ, Vasilieva N, Sui J, Wong SK, Berne MA, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus. Nature. 2003; 426(6965): 450-454.
22. Kuba K, Imai Y, Rao S, Gao H, Guo F, Guan B, et al. A crucial role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in SARS coronavirus–induced lung injury. Nature Med. 2005; 11(8): 875-879.
23. Wang S, Guo F, Liu K, Wang H, Rao S, Yang P, Jiang C. Endocytosis of the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV spike protein together with virus receptor ACE2. Virus Res. 2008; 136(1-2): 8-15.
24. Aoe, T. Pathological Aspects of COVID-19 as a Conformational Disease and the Use of Pharmacological Chaperones as a Potential Therapeutic Strategy. Front Pharmacol. 2020; 11: 1095.
25. Rahman N, Basharat Z, Yousuf M, Castaldo G, Rastrelli L, Khan H. Virtual screening of natural products against type II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2), the priming agent of Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Molecules. 2020; 25(10): 2271.
26. Huang Y, Yang C, Xu XF, Xu W, Liu SW. Structural and functional properties of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein: Potential antivirus drug development for COVID-19. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2020; 41: 1141-1149.
27. Yadav R, Chaudhary JK, Jain N, Chaudhary PK, Khanra S, Dhamija P, et al. Role of Structural and Non-Structural Proteins and Therapeutic Targets of SARS-CoV-2 for COVID-19. Cells. 2021; 10: 821.
28. Shang J, Wan Y, Luo C, Ye G, Geng Q, Auerbach A, Li F. Cell entry mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2. Proc Nat Acad Sci. 2020; 117(21): 11727-11734.
29. Hamming I, Timens W, Bulthuis MLC, Lely AT, Navis GV, van Goor H. Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis. J Pathol. 2004; 203(2): 631-637.
30. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia. New Engl J Med. 2020; 382: 1199-1207.
31. Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA. 2020; 323(13): 1239-1242.
32. Linton NM, Kobayashi T, Yang Y, Hayashi K, Akhmetzhanov AR, Jung SM, et al. Incubation period and other epidemiological characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infections with right truncation: a statistical analysis of publicly available case data. J Clin Med. 2020; 9(2): 538.
33. Kaushik H, Singh VK. Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): A Pandemic Era. Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19): Scoping Review, Chapter 7. 2020: 110-127. https://www.kdpublications.in.
34. Kabir MA, Ahmed R, Iqbal SMA, Chowdhury R, Paulmurugan R, Demirci U, Asghar W. Diagnosis for COVID-19: current status and future prospects. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2021: 1-20.
35. Dai WC, Zhang HW, Yu J, Xu HJ, Chen H, Luo SP, et al. CT imaging and differential diagnosis of COVID-19. Can Assoc Radiologists J. 2020; 71(2): 195-200.
36. Chan JFW, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KKW, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet. 2020; 395(10223): 514-523.
37. Loon SC, Teoh SCB, Oon LLE, Se-Thoe SY, Ling AE, Leo YS, Leong, H. N. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in tears. Brit J Ophthalmol. 2004; 88(7): 861-863.
38. Wilson NM, Norton A, Young FP, Collins DW. Airborne transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus‐2 to healthcare workers: a narrative review. Anaesthesia. 2020; 75(8): 1086-1095.
39. Lewis D. Is the coronavirus airborne? Experts can’t agree. Nature. 2020; 580(7802): 175.
40. Lai MY, Cheng PK, Lim WW. Survival of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Clin Infect Dis. 2005; 41(7): e67-e71.
41. World Health Organization. Genomic sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 A guide to implementation for maximum impact on public health, 8 January 2021. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/338480/9789240018440-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y. Accessed: 15 May 2021.
42. Bhardwaj R, Agrawal A. How coronavirus survives for days on surfaces. Physics Fluids. 2020; 32(11): 111706.
43. Srivastava S, Banu S, Singh P, Sowpati DT, Mishra RK. SARS-CoV-2 genomics: An Indian perspective on sequencing viral variants. J Biosci. 2021; 46(1): 1-14.
44. Sah R, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Jha R, Chu DK, Gu H, Peiris M, et al. Complete genome sequence of a 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) strain isolated in Nepal. Microbiol Resour Announc. 2020; 9(11): e00169-20.
45. Wang Y, Mao JM, Wang GD, Luo ZP, Yang L, Yao Q, Chen KP. Human SARS-CoV-2 has evolved to reduce CG dinucleotide in its open reading frames. Sci Reports. 2020; 10(1): 1-10.
46. Srinivasan S, Cui H, Gao Z, Liu M, Lu S, Mkandawire W, et al. Structural genomics of SARS-CoV-2 indicates evolutionary conserved functional regions of viral proteins. Viruses. 2020; 12(4): 360.
47. Davies NG, Abbott S, Barnard RC, Jarvis CI, Kucharski AJ, Munday JD, et al. Estimated transmissibility and impact of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 in England. Science. 2021; 372(6538): eabg3055.
48. Emary KR, Golubchik T, Aley PK, Ariani CV, Angus B, Bibi, S, et al. Efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern 202012/01 (B.1.1.7): an exploratory analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2021; 397(10282): 1351-1362.
49. Deng X, Garcia-Knight MA, Khalid MM, Servellita V, Wang C, Morris MK, et al. Transmission, infectivity, and antibody neutralization of an emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant in California carrying a L452R spike protein mutation. MedRxiv. 2021.
50. Yadav P, Sapkal GN, Abraham P, Ella R, Deshpande G, Patil DY, et al. Neutralization of variant under investigation B. 1.617 with sera of BBV152 vaccinees. BioRxiv. 2021.
51. Talukdar S. Mutant Variants of Coronavirus in India: What we Know So Far. 12 May 2021. https://www.newsclick.in/mutant-variants-coronavirus-india-what-we-know-far. Accessed 20 May 2021.
52. Sahoo JP, Mishra AP, Samal KC. Triple Mutant Bengal Strain (B. 1.618) of Coronavirus and the Worst COVID Outbreak in India. Biotica Res Today. 2021; B(4): 261-265.
53. World Health Organization. Classification of Omicron (B.1.1.529): SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern. https://www.who.int/news/item/26-11-2021-classification-of-omicron-(b.1.1.529)-sars-cov-2-variant-of-concern. Accessed 16 December 2021.
54. Kumar S, Thambiraja T S, Karuppanan K, Subramaniam G. Omicron and Delta Variant of SARS-CoV-2: A Comparative Computational Study of Spike protein. bioRxiv. 2021.
55. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020; 395(10223): 497-506.
56. Sinha N, Balayla G. Hydroxychloroquine and covid-19. Postgrad Med J. 2020; 96(1139): 550-555.
57. Koenig KL. Identify-isolate-inform: a modified tool for initial detection and management of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome patients in the emergency department. Western J Emerg Med. 2015; 16(5): 619.
58. Centre for disease control and prevention. Different COVID-19 Vaccines: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines.html. Accessed 2 May 2021.
How to Cite
Singh, N.; Kaushik, H.; Singh, V. A Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): Current Status and Challenges. European Journal of Biological Research 2022, 12, 153-162.
Review Articles