Cytological and chromosomal damages induced by tartrazine and two classes (III and IV) of caramel food dyes
Food colors such as tartrazine (E102), ammonia caramel (E150c), sulphite ammonia caramel (E150d) are widely used in the food sector. These additives are thought to be a long-term toxicity source. The goal of our research is to emphasize the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the three food colors at various concentrations (0.5 %, 1 %, and 2 %) using Allium cepa test. The species is thought to be one of the best for assessing genotoxicity because of its low chromosomal number and lengthy chromosomes. The findings revealed that the three dyes have a cytotoxic impact, as seen by root growth inhibition after 120 h of incubation. The three food dyes had a genotoxic effect, as measured by a decrease in mitotic index and an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations such as chromosomal bridge, stickiness, and vagrant chromosomes, at both concentrations 0.5% and 1%. At 2 %, the mitotic index was reported as 0 and several cytological abnormalities (binucleate and micronucleated cells and fragmented nuclei) were noted. However, further in vitro and in vivo cytogenetic experiments treating cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the three food dyes using alternative test models (animals, cell lines) will be needed to better understand their mechanisms of action.
2. Ogugbue CJ, Sawidis T. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent. Biotechnol Res Int. 2011; 1-12.
3. Carneiro PA, Nogueira RFP, Zanoni MVB. Homogeneous photodegradation of C.I. Reactive Blue 4 using a photo-Fenton process under artificial and solar irradiation. Dyes and Pigments. 2007; 74(1): 127-132.
4. Martin DF, Alessio R, McCane CH. Removal of synthetic food dyes in aqueous solution by Octolig. J Environ Sci Health. 2013; 48: 495-500.
5. Amin KA, Hameid HA, Elsttar AHA. Effect of food azo dyes tartrazine and carmoisine on biochemical parameters related to renal, hepatic function and oxidative stress biomarkers in young male rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010; 48(10): 2994-2999.
6. Basu A, Kumar GS. Binding of carmoisine, a food colorant, with hemoglobin: Spectroscopic and calorimetric studies. Food Res Int. 2015; 72: 54-61.
7. Stolz A. Basic and applied aspects in the microbial degradation of azo dyes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001; 56(1-2): 69-80.
8. Kunz A, Peralta-Zamora P, Moraes SG, Duran N. Degradation of reagent dyes for the system iron metal/hydrogen peroxide. New J Chem. 2002; 25: 78-82.
9. Rus V, Gherman C, Miclus V, Mihalca A, Nads G. Comparative toxicity of food dyes on liver and kidney in guinea pigs: A histopathological study. Annals RSCB. 2010; 15(1): 161-165.
10. Dwivedi H, Kumar G. Genomic distortion induced by food dyes on meristematic cells of Trachyspermum ammi L. Chromosome Bot. 2017; 12(3): 46-51.
11. Kamuf W, Nixon A, Parker O, Barnum GC, Willamson DD. Overview of caramel colors. Am Assoc Cereal Chemists. 2003; 48(2): 64-69.
12. Moon JK, Shibamoto T. Formation of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole in maillard reaction systems. J Agri Food Chem. 2011; 52(2): 615-618.
13. Vollmuth TA. Caramel color safety - An update. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 ; 111: 578-596.
14. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Caramel Colours. Combined Compendium of Food Additive Specification, Monograph. 2011; 11: 1817-7077.
15. Bagatini MD, Fachinetto JM, Ferreira da Silva AC, Tedesco SB. Cytotoxic effects of infusions (tea) of Solidago microglossa DC. (Asteraceae) on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. Rev Brasil Farmacogn. 2009; 19(2): 632-636.
16. Iganci JRV, Bobrowski VL, Heiden G, Stein VC, Rocha BHG. Efeito do extrato aquoso de diferentes especies de boldo sobre a germinacao e indice mitotico de Allium cepa L. Arquivos Inst Biol. 2006; 73(1): 79-82.
17. Pulate PV, Tarar JL. Cytogenetic effect of systemic fungicide calixin on root meristem cells of Allium cepa L. Int J Life Sci. 2014; 2: 341-345.
18. Sudhakar R, Ninge Gowda KN, Venu G. Mitotic abnormalities induced by silk dyeing industry effluents in the cells of Allium cepa. Cytologia. 2001; 66(3): 235-239.
19. Polônio MLT, Peres F. Consumo de aditivos alimentares e efeitos à saúde: desafios para a saúde pública brasileira. Caderno Saúde Pública. 2009; 25(8): 1653-1666.
20. Khayyat L, Essawy A, Sorour J, Soffar A. Tartrazine induces structural and functional aberrations and genotoxic effects in vivo. Peer J. 2017; 6: 1-14.
21. National Toxicology Program (NTP). NTP Technical Report on the Toxicity Studies of 2- and 4-methylimidazole (CAS No. 693-98-1 and 822-36-6) Administered in Feed to F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies). Toxic Rep Ser. 2004; 67: 4404-4409.
22. Murray FJ. Does 4-methylimidazole have tumor preventive activity in the rat? Food Chem Toxicol. 2011; 49(1): 320-322.
23. National Toxicology Program (NTP). Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 4-methylimidazole (Cas No. 822-36-6) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser. 2007; 1-274.
24. Norizadeh T, Topaktas M, Yilmaz MB, Hajipour O, Valipour E. Delineating the antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic potentials of 4 methylimidizole against ethyl methanesulfonate toxicity in bone marrow cell of swiss albino mice. Bratisl Med J. 2016; 117(5): 290-294.
25. Pandey H, Kumar V, Roy BK. Assessment of genotoxicity of some common food preservatives using Allium cepa L. as a test plant. Toxicol Rep. 2014; 1: 300-308.
26. Shafi Khana I, Niamat A, Hamidb R, Ganiec SA. Genotoxic effect of two commonly used food dyes metanil yellow and carmoisine using Allium cepa L. as indicator. Toxicol Rep. 2020; 7: 370-375.
27. Raudsepp T, Chowdhary BP. Chromosome aberrations and fertility disorders in domestic animals. Annu Rev Anim Biosci. 2016; 4: 15-43.
28. Turkoglu S. Genotoxicity of five food preservatives tested on root tips of Allium cepa L. Mutat Res. 2007; 626(1-2): 4-14.
29. Singh RJ. Plant Cytogenetics. CRC Press Boca Raton. Florida, USA; 2003.
30. Konuk M, Liman R, Cigerci H. Determination of genotoxic effect of boron on Allium cepa root meristematic cells. Pak J Bot. 2007; 39(1): 73-79.
31. Aguiar de Oliveira MA, Alves DDL, Guedes de Morais Lima LH, Marcelo de Castro Souza J, Peron AP. Cytotoxicity of erythrosine (E-127), brilliant blue (E-133) and red 40 (E-129) food dyes in a plant test system. Acta Sci. 2013; 35: 557-562.
32. Firbas P, Amon T. Chromosome damage studies in the onion plant Allium cepa L. Caryologia. 2014; 67(1): 25-35.
33. Olaru AL, Rosculete E, Bonciu E, Rosculete CA, Sarac I. Evaluation of the cytogenetic effects of Quantis biostimulant in Allium sativum cells. Not Bot Horti Agrobot Cluj Napoca. 2020; 48(2): 681-691.
34. Dwivedi K, Kumar G. Genetic damage induced by a food coloring dye (sunset yellow) on meristematic cells of Brassica campestris L. J Environ Public Health. 2015; 1-5.
35. Abdel-Hameid NR, Elanany MAM, Haiba AAA, Abdel-Hamid EA. Relative mutagenicity of some food preservatives on plant cells. Aust J Basic Appl Sci. 2011; 5(12): 2817-2826.
36. Kumar G, Mishra R, Singh R. Chromotoxic effects of food dyes in root meristems of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Chromosome Bot. 2018; 13(1): 1-8.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.