Silkworm larvae (Bombyx mori) can learn cues associated with finding food
The present study investigated the ability of silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) larvae to learn. Silkworm larvae were trained to consume food that was placed on red paper; consequently they became attracted to red, rather than blue paper even in the absence of food. In contrast, untrained controls had no preference for either red or blue paper. These results suggested that silkworm larvae learned to associate red paper with food, and that they can discriminate colors.
2. Capaldi EA, Robinson GE, Fahrback SE. Neuroethology of spatial learning: the birds and the bees. Annu Rev Psychol. 1999; 50: 651-682.
3. Giurfa M. Learning and cognition in insects. Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci. 2015; 6(4): 383-395.
4. Bust GU, Cervantes-Sandoval I, Davis RL. Olfactory learning in Drosophila. Physiology. 2010; 25(6): 338-346.
5. Davis RL. Olfactory memory formation in Drosophila: from molecular to systems neuroscience. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2005; 28: 275-302.
6. Avarguès-Weber A, Giurfa M. Conceptual learning by miniature brains. Proc Royal Soc B. 2013; 280: 19-21.
7. Capaldi EA, Smith AD, Osborne JL, Fahrbach SE, Farris SM, Reynolds DR, et al. Ontogeny of orientation flight in the honeybee revealed by harmonic radar. Nature. 2000; 403: 537-540.
8. Cunningham JP, West SA, Zalucki MP. Host selection in phytophagous insects: A new explanation for learning in adults. Oikos. 2001; 95: 537-543.
9. Du Y, Poppy GM, Powell W, Wadhams LJ. Chemically mediated associative learning in the host foraging behavior of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J Insect Behav. 1997; 10: 509-522.
10. Dunlap AS, Nielsen ME, Dornhaus A, Papaj DR. Foraging bumble bees weigh the reliability of personal and social information. Curr Biol. 2016; 26: 1195-1199.
11. Little CM, Chapman TW, Hillier NK. Considerations for Insect Learning in Integrated Pest Management. J Insect Sci. 2019; 9(4): 1-14.
12. Jones PL, Agrawal AA. Learning in Insect Pollinators and Herbivores. Annu Rev Entomol. 2017; 62: 53-71.
13. Panthee S, Paudel A, Hamamoto H, Sekimizu K. Advantages of the Silkworm As an Animal Model for Developing Novel Antimicrobial Agents. Front Microbiol. 2017; 8: 373.
14. Gámez AM, León SP. The role of learning in the oviposition behavior of the silkworm moth (Bombyx mori). Behav Processes. 2018; 157: 286-290.
15. Tsunashima M, Takano Y, Awazu S. Spatial learning ability of silkworms [in Japanese]. In: Proceedings of the 78th Annual Convention of the Japanese Psychological Association. 2014; 3AM-1-087. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/pacjpa/78/0/78_3AM-1-087/_article/-char/ja
16. Blackiston DJ, Silva Casey E, Weiss MR. Retention of memory through metamorphosis: Can a moth remember what it learned as a caterpillar? PLoS One. 2008; 3(3): e1736.
17. Carlsson MA, Anderson P, Hartlieb E, Hansson BS. Experience-Dependent Modification of Orientational Response to Olfactory Cues in Larvae of Spodoptera littoralis. J Chem Ecol. 1999; 25: 2445-2454.
18. Deboer G. Diet-induced food preference by Manduca sexta larvae: acceptable non-host plants elicit a stronger induction than host plants. Entomol Exp Appl. 1992; 63: 3-12.
19. Pszczolkowski MA, Brown JJ. Single experience learning of host fruit selection by lepidopteran larvae. Physiol Behav. 2005; 86: 168-175.
20. van der Kooi CJ, Stavenga DG, Arikawa K, Belušič G, Kelber A. Evolution of Insect Color Vision: From Spectral Sensitivity to Visual Ecology. Annu Rev Entomol. 2021; 66: 435-461.
21. Ichikawa T, Tateda H. Distribution of color receptors in the larval eyes of four species of lepidoptera. J Comp Physiol A. 1982; 149: 317-324.
22. Süffert F, Götz B. Verhalten von Schmetterlingsraupen gegenüber farbigen Flächen [in German]. Naturwissenschaften. 1936; 24: 815.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.