Diversity and extracellular enzyme profiles of yeasts on organic and fungicide treated strawberries
Since yeasts can survive under variable environmental conditions using different food sources they have a wide distribution in nature. Fruits are suitable living spaces for yeasts and other microorganisms due to their high and different sugar contents. Strawberry fruit as well as other fruits are very sensitive to pathogenic fungi. Due to their residues on fruits, limitations on the use of fungicides have led to increased use of microorganisms with antagonistic effects as biological control agents. The biological agents to be used are selected mainly from the microorganisms found in the natural microbiota of the fruit. Therefore, in this study yeast biota on strawberry fruit collected from fungicide treated (Klorzon and Topas) and organic fields was determined using molecular identification methods. In addition, extracellular enzyme profiles of the identified yeast species were determined by the APIZYM-based system. There was no difference in the diversity of yeast species on strawberries collected from fungicide treated and organic fields, but the yeast density on organic strawberries was greater than fungicide treated fruits. The identified yeast species on fruits were determined as Metschnikowia pulcherrima (61.7%), Hanseniaspora uvarum (34.0%) and Wickerhamomyces pijperi (4.3%). W. pijperi yeast species was reported on strawberry fruit in our study first time. It was determined that H. uvarum and W. pijperi yeast species showed no α-glucosidase enzyme activity. All yeast strains showed industrially important β-glucosidase enzyme activity.
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