Fluoride level in drinking bottled waters in the Republic of Macedonia

Vesna Ambarkova, Mihail Kochubovski, Ljuben Guguvcevski, Vanco Spirov

Abstract


A vast majority of people in Macedonia use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. To determine the content of fluoride in drinking bottled water available in the country. Thirty-five commercial brands of bottled water (12 out of 23 domestic production and imported brands) were procured from bigger markets in the Republic of Macedonia. Determination of the content of fluorine is performed using ion selective electrode (Thermo Orion Ion Plus Fluoride Electrode) and Ionometer (pH/ISE meter - Thermo-Orion) of the public health Institute. The content of fluoride in packaged water from domestic production ranged from 0.035 in Spring to 1.086 in vision with an average 0.368 (± 0.305), while imported bottled water ranged from 0.032 in ordinary water ROSA to 2.220 in bottled water KOM, with an average 0.631 (± 0.497). There was a wide variation in the F levels in the different brands of bottled water.  Parents that use bottled water to prepare powdered milk for babies and baby foods should be aware that it may contain higher concentrations of fluoride and put their child at risk the occurrence of dental fluorosis.

Keywords


Bottled drinking water; Fluoride; Ion-selective electrode; Macedonia

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References


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