Women are more susceptible than men to micronutrient depletion during petrol exposure

Ayobola A. Iyanda, John Anetor

Abstract


The influence of gender on the modulating effects of many xenobiotics has been suggested. The aim of the study is to determine which of the genders, is more at risk of altered micronutrient status subsequent to petroleum-product exposure. 60 petrol-station attendants (PSA) as well as 60 control participants were recruited for the study. The test or control group for each gender consisted of 30 participants. Serum obtained from five millimeters of blood was used to determine the levels of micronutrients. Vitamins and trace elements were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry respectively. Significant differences between groups were ascertained using Student’s t test. Correlation study between length of service (at petrol station) and micronutrient levels was determined using Pearson’s correlation co-efficient. P<0.05 was considered significant. Although correlation was observed between length of service and several micronutrients for both male and female PSA and petrol caused significant reduction in micronutrient levels in both groups of PSA; Mo, Fe and Se, pyridoxine, niacin, vitamins E and vitamin C were more significantly lower in female PSA than male ones. These results suggest that women are more susceptible than men to micronutrient depletion during petrol exposure.

Keywords


Male; Female; Vitamins; Minerals; Petrol station attendants

Full Text:

PDF

References


Iyanda AA. Altered serum micronutrient levels following kerosene exposure. Int J Pharmacol Toxicol Res. 2013; 5(1): 22-25.

Iyanda AA, Adeniyi FAA. Serum trace elements presentation of female Wistar rats administered with paracetamol & paracetamol/methionine. W Afr J Pharmacol Drug Res. 2010; 26: 55-60.

Iyanda AA, Anetor JI, Adeniyi FAA. Changes in levels of antioxidant minerals and vitamins in male Wistar rats exposed to methionine containing acetaminophen formulation. Int Res J Pharm 2011; 2(5): 122-126.

Ikuabe PO, Sawyer WE. Impact of scarcity of automobile fuel on attendance at a referral centre for tuberculosis in Nigeria. Nig J Med. 2005; 14(1): 51-54.

Khisroon M, Gul A, Khan A, Ali N, Zaidi F, Rasheed SB, Ahmadullah B, Akbar H. Comet assay based DNA evaluation of fuel filling stations and automobile workshops workers from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. J Occup Med Toxicol. 2015; 10: 27.

Rekhadevi PV, Mahboob M, Rahman MF, Grover P. Determination of genetic damage and urinary metabolites in fuel filling station attendants. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2011; 52(4): 310-318.

Hoivik DJ, Manantou JE, Tveit A, Hart SG, Khairallah EA, Cohe SD. Gender-related protein arylation and nephrotoxicity in the CD- 1 mouse. Toxicol Appl Pharm. 1995; 130: 257-271.

Iyanda AA, Anetor JI, Oparinde DP. Aflatoxin contamination of foodstuffs: its health implications in Sub-Saharan Africa. Ann Exp Biol. 2014; 2(3): 63-73.

Guo H, Huang K, Zhang X, Zhang W, Guan L, Kuang D, et al. Women are more susceptible than men to oxidative stress and chromosome damage caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2014; 55(6): 472-481.

Hu JJ, M. Lee MJ, Vapiwala M, Rehwl K, Yang CS. Sex-related differences in mouse renal metabolism and toxicity of acetaminophen. Toxicol Appl Pharm. 1993; 122: 16-26.

Bull N, Riise T, Moen BE. Influence of paternal exposure to oil and oil products on time to pregnancy and spontaneous abortions. Occup Med. 1999; 49(6): 371-376.

Morris JB, Buckpitt AR. Upper respiratory tract uptake of naphthalene. Toxicol Sci. 2009; 111(2): 383-391.

Powley MW, Carlson GP. Cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of phenol, a benzene metabolite. Toxicol Lett. 2001; 125(1-3): 117-123.

Waxman DJ, Holloway MG. Sex differences in expression of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes. Mol Pharmacol. 2009; 76(2): 215-228.

Crebelli R, Tomei F, Zijno A, Martini A, Carere A. Exposure to benzene in urban workers: environmental and biological monitoring of traffic police in Rome. Occup Environ Med. 2001; 58: 165-171.

Garte S, Popov T, Georgieva T. Biomarkers of exposure and effect in Bulgarian petrochemical workers exposed to benzene. Chem Biol Interact 2005; 30: 247-251.

Sul D, Lee D, Im H, Oh E, Kim J, Lee E. Single strand DNA breaks in T- and B-lymphocytes and granulocytes in workers exposed to benzene. Toxicol Lett. 2002; 134: 87-95.

Sul D, Lee E, Lee MY, Oh E, Im H, Lee J, et al. DNA damage in lymphocytes of benzene exposed workers correlates with trans, trans-muconic acids and breath benzene levels. Mutat Res. 2005; 582: 61-70.

Kanupriya, Yadav A, Kumar N, Gulati S, Aggarwal N, Gupta R. Association of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1m2 (BsrD1) polymorphisms with cytogenetic biomarkers in petrol pump workers. Biomarkers Genom Med. 2015; 7: 159-164.

El Mahdy NM, Radwan NM, Kharoub HS, El-Halawany F. Chromosomal abnormalities among petrol station workers occupationally exposed to benzene. Brit J Appl Sci Tech. 2015; 7(5): 502-513.

Umegbolu EI, Ogamba JO, Unkekwe PC. Detection of micronuclei formation in petrol station pump attendants in Awka, Awka South, Anambra State, Nigeria. Int J Toxicol Pharmacol Res 2016; 8: 53-58.

Metgud R, Khajuria N, Patel S, Lerra S. Nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of petrol station attendants in Udaipur, Rajasthan. J Cancer Res Ther. 2015; 11: 868-873.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.