Evaluation of HPLC-UV-DAD and antiproliferative characteristics of the leaf infusion of Ximenia americana Linn.

Samuel Ehiabhi Okhale, Amarachi Clare Nnachor, Udeme Effiong Bassey


Ximenia americana (X. americana) is reputable for the treatment of various ailments in Nigeria. The hot aqueous extract of X. americana leaf (XA) was obtained by infusion. The antiproliferative potential of XA was evaluated employing Sorghum bicolor seed radicle as test subject over the period of 48-96 hours. The mean radicle lengths (mm), percentage inhibition and percentage growth were determined. XA was chemically characterized using colour reactions and high performance liquid chromatography with UV-diode array detector (HPLC-UV-DAD). Phytochemical investigation indicated the presence of tannins, saponins and flavonoids. HPLC analysis revealed thirteen peaks with rutin and ferullic acid eluting at 6.886 and 7.796 minute respectively. XA significantly (p < 0.0001) inhibited S. bicolor seed growth over a period of 48-96 h against the control seeds. At 96 h, XA dose-dependently inhibited seed growth,  giving percentage inhibition of 23.24, 29.06, 30.68, 38.27, 49.57, 50.39, 64.60, 79.67 and 82.01% for seeds treated with 1 mg/ml, 2 mg/ml, 4 mg/ml, 8 mg/ml 16 mg/ml, 24 mg/ml, 32 mg/ml, 40 mg/ml and 48 mg/ml respectively with IC50 of 24 mg/ml. Methotrexate 0.167 mg/ml used as positive control gave inhibition of 92.76% at 96 h. This result revealed the potential of XA to inhibit the growth of fast proliferating cells of S. bicolor seed radicle.


Ximenia americana; Antiproliferative; Sorghum bicolor; Caffeic acid; Rutin

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