Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of Hepatitis B among adults attending selected government hospitals in Nigeria
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major public health problems globally. This study aims to determine the frequency of occurrence of HBV infection and associated risk factors for acquisition of the disease in clinically-ill adult patients attending selected government hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria. Seven hundred and sixty-seven (767) ill adult individuals attending five medical out-patient Departments of the hospitals who consented to the study were recruited for the investigation. A structured questionnaire which covered sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors were used for primary information. Positivity for HBV was determined using a quality assured commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for the detection of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Of the 767 patients, 11.0% were positive for HBsAg. The prevalence rate for HBsAg positivity was higher in the males (13.5%) than the females (9.3%) (pv = 0.043). The study also revealed the highest prevalence rate of HBsAg infection among the age group 19 – 39 years with mean percentage of 17.5%. Alcohol consumption, history of HBV in the family, multiple sex partners, history of injections in road side chemist shops, and intake of traditional herbs showed significant association respectively (p < 0.05), however no significant association among individuals with history of HBV vaccination, blood transfusion and tattoo/tribal mark (p > 0.05). Conclusively, this study gives information on the prevalence rate of HBV in the community sampled to be 11.0%. This shows that HBV is endemic in Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria.
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