Effect of Aloe vera gel on some haematological parameters and serum electrolytes in high salt loaded Wistar rats

  • Augustine Lishilinimye Udefa Department of Physiology, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
  • Archibong Nsa Archibong Department of Physiology, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
  • Ada Ak Akwari Department of Physiology, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
  • Solomon Ayaokpo Leilei Department of Physiology, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
Keywords: Aloe vera gel, Electrolyte, Haemoglobin, High salt diet, Red blood cell, White blood cell

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of Aloe vera gel on some haematological parameters and serum electrolytes in high salt loaded rats. Twenty (20) male Wistar rats (180-250 g) were randomly assigned into 4 groups (n=5): Control- received 0.2 ml normal saline; Aloe-received 600 mg/kg of Aloe vera gel orally once daily; Salt-fed (SF) received high salt diet (8% NaCl in feed + 1% NaCl in H2O); Saltfed-treated (SF+Aloe) received high salt diet + Aloe vera gel. All groups had access to rat feed and water throughout the duration (six weeks) of treatment. Blood samples were collected from each animal via cardiac puncture for analysis. Red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly (p<0.05) increased in SF and SF+Aloe groups compared with control and Aloe groups. Total white blood cell count was significantly (p<0.001) decreased in SF group compared with control and Aloe groups and increased (p<0.001) in SF+Aloe group compared with SF group. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were significantly increased and decreased respectively in SF+Aloe group compared with control (p<0.01), Aloe (p<0.05) and SF (p<0.001) groups. Na+, K+ and Cl- concentrations were significantly increased in SF and SF+Aloe group compared with control and Aloe groups. HCO3- concentration was significantly increased in Aloe and SF+Aloe groups compared with control. High salt diet (HSD) caused alterations in red cell indices and posed threat to the immune system of rats. Aloe vera could not reverse these alterations but exhibited an immune-stimulatory effect. Both Aloe vera and HSD caused electrolyte imbalance.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1318287

References

1. Kostick DS, ed. Salt. U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook, 2000.

2. Ball CO, Meneely GR. Observations on dietary sodium chloride. J Am Diet Assoc. 1957; 33: 366-370.

3. Dickinson WE. Salt sources and markets. In: Karc MR, Fregly MJ, Bernard RA, eds. Biological and behavorial aspects of salt intake. New York, Academic Press, 1980: 49-52.

4. WHO. Guideline: Sodium intake for adults and children. World Health Organization (WHO), 2012.

5. Barker DJ. The fetal origins of adult hypertension. J Hypertens. 1992; 10: 39-44.

6. Yu HC, Burrell LM, Black MJ, Wu LL, Dilley RJ, Cooper ME, et al. Salt induces myocardial and renal fibrosis in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Circulation. 1998; 98(23): 2621-2628.

7. Ahmed MA, Abd EL Samad AA. Benefits of omega-3 fatty acid against bone changes in salt-loaded rats: possible role of kidney. Physiol Rep. 2013; 1(5): 1-11.

8. Wang G, Yeung C, Wong W, Zhang N, Wei Y, Zhang J, et al. Liver fibrosis can be induced by high salt intake through excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. J Agric Food Chem .2016; 64(7): 1610-1617.

9. Ofem OE, Udefa AL, Archibong AN, Ujong GO. Comparative effect of vitamin C and high calcium diet on some serum bio-markers of liver function in high salt loaded rats. J Pharmac Biol. 2017; 7(2): 80-89.

10. Bragulat E, de la Sierra A, Antonio MT, Jimenez W, Urbano-Marquez A, Coca A. Effect of salt intake on endothelium-derived factors in a group of patients with essential hypertension. Clin Sci. 2001; 101: 73-78.

11. de Wardener HE, MacGregor GA. Harmful effects of dietary salt in addition to hypertension. J Hum Hypertens. 2002; 16: 213-223.

12. Lenda DM, Boegehold MA. Effect of a high salt diet on microvascular antioxidant enzymes. J Vasc Res. 2002; 39(1): 41-50.

13. Dobrian AD, Schriver SD, Lynch T, Prewitt RL. Effect of salt on hypertension and oxidative stress in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003; 285: 619-628.

14. Iranloye BO, Oludare GO, Morakinyo AO, Esume NA, Ekeh LC. Reproductive parameters and oxidative stress status of male rats fed with low and high salt diet. J Hum Reprod Sci. 2013; 6(4): 267-272.

15. Anilakumar KR, Sudarshanakrishna KR, Chandramohan G, Ilaiyaraja N, Khanum F, Bawa AS. Effect of Aloe vera gel extract on antioxidant enzymes and azoxymethane-induced oxidative stress in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010; 48(8): 837-842.

16. Tyler V, ed. The honest herbal: a sensible guide to the use of herbs and related remedies. 3rd edn. Binghamton, NY; Pharmaceuticals Products Press, 1993.

17. Reynolds T, Dweck A. Aloe vera leaf gel: a review update. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 68: 3-37.

18. Rajasekaran S, Sivagnanam K, Ravi K, Subramanian S. Hypoglycemic effect of Aloe vera gel on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in experimental rats. J Med Food. 2004; 7(1): 61-66.

19. Agarwal OP. Prevention of atheromatous heart disease. Angiology. 1985; 36(8): 485-492.

20. Davis RH, Leitner MG, Russo JM, Byrne ME. Wound healing. Oral and topical activity of Aloe vera. J Am Pediatr Med Assoc. 1989; 79(11): 559-562.

21. Jani GK, Shah DP, Jain VC, Patel MJ, Vithalan DA. Evaluating mucilage from Aloe barbadensis Miller as a pharmaceutical excipient for sustained-release matrix tablets. Pharm Technol. 2007; 31: 90-98.

22. Ani EJ, Nna VU, Okon UA, Ekpenyong CE. Effect of Aloe vera gel on thermoxidized palm oil induced derangements in some haematological and biochemical parameters. Pharm Lett. 2014; 6(6): 448-452.

23. Yusuf S, Agunu A, Diana M. The effect of Aloe vera A. Berger (Liliaceae) on gastric acid secretion and acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004; 93(1): 33-37.

24. Archibong AN, Nku CO, Udefa AL, Leilei SA. Aloe vera gel reverses haemostatic derangement in rats following salt loading. WJPR. 2018; 7(4): 91-100.

25. Visuthikosol V, Chowchuen B, Sukwanarat Y, Sriurairratana S, Boonpucknavig V. Effect of Aloe vera gel on healing of burn wound: a clinical and histologic study. J Med Assoc Thai. 1995; 78: 403-409.

26. Heggers J, Elzaim H, Garfield R, Goodheart R, Listergarten D, Zhao J, et al. Effect of the combination of Aloe vera, nitroglycerin and L-NAME on wound healing in the rat excisional model. J Altern Complement Med. 1997; 3: 149-153.

27. Dapper DV, Achinike PN, Gwotmut MD. The effects of Aloe vera (gel) on clotting time, prothrombin time and plasma fibrinogen concentration in albino Wistar rats. Port Harcourt Med J. 2007; 2: 50-60.

28. Ofem OE, Ani EJ, Archibong AN, John RE. Effect of masfon Aloe vera gel on some blood parameters in high salt loaded rats. Pharm Lett. 2015; 7(8): 26-34.

29. Ime AU, Ani EJ, Nna VU, Obeten CE. Aloe vera and garlic ameliorate thermoxidized palm oil-induced haemostatic derangement in albino Wistar rats. MicroMed. 2017; 5(2): 53-59.

30. Helsinki. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Adopted by the 18th WMA General Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, 1964.

31. Ani EJ, Ibu IO, Ofem OE. Gastric acid secretion induced by Aloe barbadensis (Aloe vera) gel. West Afr J Biol Sci. 2005; 16: 15-24.

32. Obiefuna PC, Obiefuna IP. Salt induced hypertension in rats alters the response of isolated aortic rings to cromakalim. West Indian Med J. 2001; 50(1): 17-21.

33. Archibong AN, Ofem OE, Akwari AA, Ukweni SU, Eno AE, Beshel FN. Extract of edible seafood - Egeria radiata (clam) boosts blood parameters in rats. Br J Appl Sci Technol. 2014; 4(11): 1684-1692.

34. Guyton AC, Hall JE, eds. Textbook of medical physiology. 12th edn. Saunders, 2010.

35. Salzberg DJ, Weir MR. COX-2 inhibitors and cardiovascular risk. Subcell Biochem. 2007; 42: 159-174.

36. Ofem OE; Ani EJ, Okoi OC, Effiong AU, Eno AE, Ibu JO. Viscum album (Mistletoe) extract ameliorates the adverse effects of high salt load on some serum electrolytes, organ weight and cytoarchitecture in rats. Aust J Basic Appl Sci. 2010; 4(12): 6223-6232.

37. Guyton AC, Hall JE, eds. Text book of medical physiology. 10th edn. Saunders, 2002.

38. Vasudevan D, Sreekumari S, eds. Textbook of biochemistry for medical students. 5th edn. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, 2007.

39. Duggal AK, Yadav P, Agarwal AK, Rewari BB. Clinical approach to altered serum sodium levels. J Indian Acad Clin Med. 2006; 7(2): 91-103.

40. Ganong WF, ed. Review of medical physiology. 18th edn. Prentice Hall Publishers, 1997.

41. Nwangwa JN, Udefa AL, Anyaibe SC, Iragunima AS, Eze NC. Comparative effect of chilli pepper (Capsicum frutescens) extract and capsaicin on some haematological parameters and serum electrolytes in albino Wistar rats. Int Blood Res Rev. 2016; 6(3): 1-8.
Published
2018-07-20
How to Cite
Udefa, A., Archibong, A., Akwari, A., & Leilei, S. (2018). Effect of Aloe vera gel on some haematological parameters and serum electrolytes in high salt loaded Wistar rats. MicroMedicine, 6(2), 69-77. Retrieved from http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/mmed/article/view/43
Section
Research Articles