Phytochemical screening and in-vitro antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Justicia secunda Vahl on selected clinical pathogens
The phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Justicia secunda against five selected clinical pathogens were investigated. Leaves of Justicia secunda were obtained and authenticated, and subjected to drying at room temperature for thirty days. The dried leaves were blended into powder for solvent extraction. Aqueous, ethanol and methanol, extracts of the leaves were prepared and concentrated using a rotary evaporator. The phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods while the antibacterial activity of the extracts against the clinical isolates was determined using the agar well diffusion method. Saponins, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, anthraquinones and alkaloids were all present in the methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts, while cardiac glycosides and alkaloids were absent in the aqueous extract. All the extracts had antibacterial activity against the test bacteria at 150 mg/mL, with the exception of the aqueous and methanol extracts that had no activity against E. coli. The MIC of the aqueous extract for both B. cereus and L. monocytogenes was 37.5 mg/mL, 150 mg/mL for S. aureus, 18.75 mg/mL for P. aeruginosa, with no activity against E. coli. The methanol extract of had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 18.75 mg/mL on all the tested bacteria, with the exception of E. coli with no activity, while the MIC of the ethanol extract on P. aeruginosa was 75 mg/mL, and 18.75 mg/mL for the other bacteria. J. secunda could be promising in the future design of antibacterial drugs due to its antibacterial properties as observed in this study.
2. Braz DM, Carvalho-Okano RM, Kameyama C. Acanthaceae da Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Rev Bras Bot. 2002; 25: 495-504.
3. N'Guessan R, Asidi A, Boko P, Odjo A, Akogbeto M, Pigeon O, Rowland M. An experimental hut evaluation of PermaNet (R) 3.0, a deltamethrin‐piperonyl butoxide combination net, against pyrethroid‐resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in southern Benin. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010; 104: 758-765.
4. Kone WM, Koffi AG, Bomisso EL, TraBi FH. Ethnomedical study and iron content of some medicinal herbs used in traditional medicine in Cote D’Ivoire for the treatment of anaemia. Afr J Trad Compl Altern Med. 2012; 9: 81-87.
5. Koffi EN, Guerneve C, Lazano PR, Muede E, Adje F, Bekro Y, et al. Polyphenol extraction and characterization of Justicia secunda Vahl for traditional medicinal uses. J Ind Crops Prod. 2013; 49: 482-489.
6. Gutierrez-Lugo M, Singh MP, Maiese WM, Timmermann BN. New antimicrobial cycloartane triterpenes from Acalypha communis. J Nat Prod. 2002; 65: 72-875.
7. Mothana RAA, Mentel R, Reiss C, Lindequist U. Phytochemical screening and antiviral activity of some medicinal plants from the island Soqotra. Wiley Online Lib. 2006; 20: 298-302.
8. Okoli CO, Akah PA, Nwafor SV, Anisiobi AL, Ibegbunam IN, Erojikwe O. Anti-inflammatory activity of hexane leaf extract of Aspilia africana C.D. Adams. J Ethnopharm. 2007; 109: 219-225.
9. Theiler BA, Revoltella S, Zehl M, Dangl C, Caisa LOE, Koenig J, et al. Secundarellone A, B, and C from the leaves of Justicia secunda Vahl. Phytochem Lett. 2010; 10: 129-132.
10. Mpiana PT, Ngbolua KN, Bokota MT, Kasonga TK, Atibu EK, Tshibangu DS, Mugodo V. In-vitro effects of anthocyanin extracts from Justicia secunda Vahl on the solubility of haemoglobins and membrane stability of sickle erythrocytes. J Blood Trans. 2010; 8: 248-254.
11. Calderon A. Etude phytochimique des plantes du Panama: Henriettella fascicularis, (SW.) C. Wright, et Miconia serrulata (DC.) Naud (Melastomaceae) et comparaison chimiotaxonomique des espèces de Justicia (Acanthaceae), Thèse de Doctorat, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Lausanne, Suisse, Juillet. 2002.
12. Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicinal in Africa. 2nd edn. Sunshine House, Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books Ltd., Screening Plants for Bioactive Agents 1993; 134-156.
13. Edeoga HO, Okwu DE, Mbaebie BO. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr J Biotechnol. 2005; 4: 685-688.
14. Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods - a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. New Delhi: Springer Pvt. Ltd. 2005.
15. Kumar GS, Jayaveera KN, Kumar CKA, Sanjay UP, Swamy BMV, Kumar DVK. Antimicrobial effects of Indian medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria. Trop J Pharm Res. 2007; 6: 717-723.
16. Parekh J, Chanda SV. In vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of some Indian medicinal plants. Turk J Biol. 2007; 31: 53-58.
17. N’Guessan K, Kouassi KL, Ouattara K. Plants used for the treatment of anaemia, in the South of Cote-d’Ivoire. J Appl Sci Res. 2010; 6: 1291-1297.
18. Carrington S, Cohall DH, Gossell-Williams M, Lindo JF. The antimicrobial screening of a Barbadian medicinal plant with indications for use in the treatment of diabetic wound infections. West Indian Med J. 2012; 61: 861-864.
19. Osioma E, Hamilton-Amarachee A. Comparative study on the phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of methanolic leaf extract of Justicia secunda vahl. Nig J Sci Env. 2017; 15: 111-115.
20. Rojas JJ, Ochoa VJ, Ocampo SA, Munoz JF. Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: a possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections. BMC Complem Altern Med. 2006; 6: 2.
21. Akibou OM, Agbangnan DCP, Bossou A, Koudoro Y, Noudogbessi AJP, Avlessi F, Sohounhloue KCD. Chemical characterization and biological activities of extracts of three plants used in traditional medicine in Benin; Tectonia grandis, Uvaria chameae and Justicia secunda. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2014; 7: 23-27.
22. Mea A, Ekissi YER, Abo KJC, Kahou GP. Bi-hypoglyceamiant and antihyperglyceamiant effect of Justicia secunda Yahl (Acanthaceae) on glyceamia in the wistar rat. Int J Dev Res. 2017; 7: 13179-13184.
23. Somerville VS, Braakhuis AJ, Hopkins WG. Effect of flavonoids on upper respiratory tract infections and immune function: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Adv Nutr. 2016; 7: 488-497.
24. Thao NP, Luyen BT, Kim EJ, Kang JI, Kang HK, et al. Steroidal constituents from the edible sea urchin Diadema savignyi Michelin induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. J Med Food. 2015; 18: 45-53.
25. Jovanovic-Santa SS, Petri ET, Klisuric OR, Klisuric M, Kovacevic R, et al. Antihormonal potential of selected D-homo and D-secoestratriene derivatives. Steroids. 2015; 97: 45-53.
26. Aav R, Kanger T, Pehk T, Lopp M. Unexpected reactivity of ethyl 2-(diethylphosphono) propionate toward 2,2-disubstituted-3-cyclopentanediones. Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Related Elem. 2005; 180: 1739-1748.
27. Rattanasopa C, Phungphong S, Wattanapermpool J, Bupha-Intr T. Significant role of estrogen in maintaining cardiac mitochondrial functions. J Steroids Biochem Mol Biol. 2015; 147(1-9): 95-108.
28. Liu J. Pharmacology of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. J Ethnopharmacol. 1995; 49: 57-68.
29. Meggio F, Pagano MA, Moro S, Zagotto G, Ruzzene M, Sarno S, et al. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 by condensed polyphenolic derivatives. An in-vitro and in-vivo study. Am Chem Soc. 2004; 43: 12931-12936.
30. Chen R, Zhang J, Hu Y, Wang S, Chen M, Wang Y. Potential antineoplastic effects of aloe-emodin: a comprehensive review. Am Chinese Med. 2014; 42: 275-288.
31. Herrera-Mata H, Rosas-Romero A, Crescente OV. Biological activity of Sanguinaria (Justicia secunda) extracts. Pharm Biol. 2002; 40: 206-212.
32. Haslam E. Natural polyphenols (vegetable tannins) as drugs: possible modes of action. J Nat Prod. 1996; 59(2): 205-215.
33. Jones GA, McAllister TA, Muir AD, Cheng KJ. Effect of sainfoin (Onobry chisviciifolia Scop.) condensed tannins on growth and proteolysis by four strains of ruminal bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1994; 60: 1374-1378.
34. Guimaraes-Beelen PM, Berchielli TT, Buddington R, Beelen R. Efeito dos taninoscondensados de forrageirasnativas do semi-aridonordestinosobre o crescimento e atividadecelulolitica de Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD1. Arq Brasil Med Veter Zootecnia. 2006; 58: 910-917.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.