European Journal of Biological Research <p><strong>ISSN: 2449-8955</strong><br><strong><a title="MNiSW points: 11" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MNiSW points 2016: 11<br></a></strong><a title="ICV: 93.39" href=",p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>ICV 2016: 95.65</strong><br></a><strong>Acceptance rate: 2016 - 64%, 2017 - 56%</strong><br><strong>Google-based IF (2017): 0.586&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; h-index: 11</strong><a title="ICV: 93.39" href=",p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><br></a></p> TMKarpinski Publisher en-US European Journal of Biological Research 2449-8955 Pesticides and food safety in Africa <p>African countries have experienced nonconformance in the levels of pesticides for local consumption and export. Sometimes this leads to rejects and other forms of embarrassment from the importing countries. Economic challenge and lack of awareness heighten the overall cost of interventions in pesticide-related food safety management. For example, not a few of the infractions were a result of incorrect ways of pesticide application. The hazard accompanying chemical pesticide application has left open a window of biological alternatives which this review article seems to explore<strong>. </strong>The bio-alternatives, including green pesticides cancel out the adverse effect of residual chemicals on crops in farm and store and so make it more attractive.</p> <p><strong>DOI</strong>: <a href=""></a></p> Annabella A. Adewunmi Stephen O. Fapohunda ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-22 2018-03-22 8 2 70 83 Diversity of inulinase-producing fungi associated with two Asteraceous plants, Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) and Pluchea dioscoridis (L.) growing in an extreme arid environment <p>Inulinases are potentially valuable enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of plant’s inulin into high fructose syrups as sweetening ingredients for food industry and ethanol production. The high demands for inulinase enzymes have promoted interest in microbial inulinases as the most suitable approach for biosynthesis of fructose syrups from inulin. Arid land ecosystem represents a valuable bioresource for soil microbial diversity with unique biochemical and physiological properties. In the present study, we explored the fungi diversity associated with the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of two desert medicinal plants namely <em>Pluchea dioscoridis</em> and <em>Pulicaria crispa</em> growing in the South-Eastern desert of Aswan, Egypt. A total of 180 fungal isolates were screened based on their ability to grow on potato dextrose agar medium supplemented with 1% inulin. The isolated fungal colonies were morphologically identified according to cultural characteristics and spore-bearing structure. In addition, the inulinase activity of the isolated fungi was examined spectrophotometrically. Among these, <em>Aspergillus terreus</em> var. <em>terreus</em> 233, <em>Botrytis</em> <em>cinerea</em>, <em>Aspergillus aegyptiacus</em>,<em> Cochliobolus australiensis</em> 447 and <em>Cochliobolus australiensis</em> exhibited high inulinase activity ranging from 5.05 to 7.26 U/ml. This study provides a promising source of microbial inulinase, which can be scaled up for industrial applications.</p> <p><strong>DOI</strong>: <a href=""></a></p> Doaa M. A. Khalil Mohamed S. Massoud Mostafa Abdelrahman Soad A. El-Zayat Magdi A. El-Sayed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 8 2 42 55 Optimization of kojic acid production conditions from cane molasses using Plackett-Burman design <p>Fungal synthesis of kojic acid has gained more interest in these days as an alternative way to chemical synthetic. The aspect of the microbial fermentation process is to develop a suitable culture medium to obtain the maximum amount of kojic acid using statistical methods. In this study; different selected three isolates of <em>Aspergillus </em><em>flavus</em> (No 1, 2 and 3) were screened for their ability to produced kojic acid and the isolate No 3 was the highest kojic acid producer one. The capability of <em>A. flavus</em> No 3 to produce kojic acid was improved using Plackett-Burman design. From ten different agro-industrial wastes cane molasses recorded the highest kojic acid productivity with 2.24 g/l<sup>-1 </sup>day<sup>-1</sup> and was the most effective parameter plays a crucial role in Plackett-Burman design. Maximum kojic acid production (24.65 g/l) by <em>A. flavus</em> (No. 3) obtained under the fermentation conditions: incubation temperature at 25<sup>o</sup>C, incubation time 9 days, pH 3, inoculum size 0.5%, shaking rate at 150 rpm and medium constituents: Cane molasses 60 g/l, yeast extract 7 g/l, KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> 2 g/l, ZnSO<sub>4</sub>·7H<sub>2</sub>O 100 µg/l and MgSO<sub>4</sub>·7H<sub>2</sub>O 1 g/l with regression analysis (R<sup>2</sup>) 99.45% and 2.33-fold increase in comparison to the production of the original level (10.6 g/l).</p> <p><strong>DOI</strong>: <a href=""></a></p> Abdel-Naser A. Zohri Ghada Abd-Elmonsef Mahmoud Nermien H. Saddek Radwa Adel Hanafy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-22 2018-03-22 8 2 56 69