http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/issue/feed European Journal of Biological Research 2022-08-14T20:42:50+02:00 Joanna Bródka ejbr@tmkarpinski.lh.pl Open Journal Systems <p><strong>ISSN: 2449-8955</strong><br><strong><a title="MNiSW points: 11" href="http://www.nauka.gov.pl/g2/oryginal/2016_12/c5c2fcb0c283a9eb3d1081020fd3178c.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MNiSW points 2016: 11<br></a></strong><strong><a title="ICV: 100.00" href="http://journals.indexcopernicus.com/European+Journal+of,p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICV 2018: 100.00</a></strong><br><strong>Acceptance rate: 44% (2019)</strong></p> http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/577 Synthesis of nicotine derivatives and evaluation of their anti-bacterial activity 2022-08-14T20:42:50+02:00 Djaafar Zemali neghmouchenacer-salah@univ-eloued.dz Mohammed Ridha Ouahrani neghmouchenacer-salah@univ-eloued.dz Salah Neghmouche Nacer neghmouchenacer-salah@univ-eloued.dz <p>Using a convergent synthetic method, a series of nicotine derivatives were synthesized from the basic materials nicotine-N-oxide in good yields. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral methods of analysis (FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR). Most of the target compounds were tested for antibacterial activity against five kinds of bacteria; the tested compounds exhibited varying levels of activity against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The results of bioactivities showed that some of the target compounds exhibited good antibacterial activities against <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em>, and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>. In addition, the broad spectrum anti-microbial action of nicotine derivatives developed in the present study may find immense applications in formulating new disinfection or decontamination strategies against widely spreading pathogens of clinical significance.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6990730">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6990730</a></strong></p> 2022-08-14T16:07:04+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/578 Hyoscyamus muticus L. subsp. falezlez methanolic extract: phytochemical composition and biological activities 2022-06-27T20:24:27+02:00 Sofia Ayari-Guentri sofiaguentri.o@gmail.com Nadjette Djemouai nadjetdjm@hotmail.fr Somia Saad somiasaad89@gmail.com Samira Karoune karounesamira@yahoo.fr Rabéa Gaceb-Terrak gaceb_terrak@yahoo.fr Fatma Rahmania frahmania@gmail.com <p>This study aims to assess the phytochemical analysis and evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extract obtained from the Algerian <em>Hyoscyamus muticus</em> L. subsp. <em>falezlez</em> leaves of Timimoun region. Methanolic extract of the plant contained the highest quantity of phenolics (148.00 ± 3.07 µg GAE/mg extract) and flavonoids (41.43 ± 0.90 µg QE/mg extract). The High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) results showed dominance in the phenolic compounds: orientin, vitexin 2-O-rhamnoside and n-OH-cinnamic acid. Eight metabolites were identified and quantified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) which included five fatty acids, one dicarboxylic acid derivative, one bicyclic hydrocarbon and one fatty acid derivate. The GC-MS analysis revealed that palmitic acid (32.56%), linolenic acid (21.34%) and linoleic acid (11.24%) were the three major components. The methanolic extract showed an antioxidant activity for DPPH, ABTS, reducing power and phenanthroline assays. The strongest antioxidant activity was obtained with phenanthroline assay (value of A<sub>0.5</sub> &lt;3.125 µg/mL). The antimicrobial investigation on thirteen microbial strains revealed that the methanolic extract showed low to moderate antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive and negative tested bacteria and no antifungal activity on all the tested fungi. This work suggests the use of leaves from <em>H. muticus</em> L. subsp. <em>falezlez </em>as a source of bioactive compounds with applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6757367">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6757367</a></strong></p> 2022-06-26T21:41:54+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/572 Synthesis of oxadiazole substituted new carbazole derivatives as antioxidant and antiurease agent 2022-06-04T20:13:10+02:00 Nurhan Gümrükçüoğlu ngumrukcuoglu@ktu.edu.tr Bahar Bilgin Sökmen baharsokmen@yahoo.com <p>Heterocyclic compounds containing nitrogen together with an oxygen atom in their structures are an important class of medicinal chemistry compounds due to their interesting diverse biological applications. Some compounds including carbazole ring, which are aromatic organic compounds in tricyclic structure, show biological activity in a wide spectrum. Oxadiazole compounds attract the attention of many chemists thanks to their antibacterial, antitumor, anticancer, anti-viral, antimicrobial, anti-HIV, antituberculosis and antioxidant properties. In this study, new oxadiazole substituted carbazole derivatives were synthesized and their antioxidant, antiurease activities were investigated. 9H-carbazole is a good starting material for the synthesis of carbazole derivatives. The antioxidant and antiurease activities of synthesized oxadiazole substituted new carbazole derivatives were investigated. Antioxidant activity methods such as DPPH (1,1’-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt) radical scavenging activities and iron reducing power capacities were used to determine antioxidant activity of the compounds. All synthesized carbazole compounds showed antioxidant and antiurease activity. While compound 4 shows the strongest enzyme inhibition activity, the least active compound was found 5. All tested compounds showed higher enzyme inhibition activity than thiourea. The highest and the lowest antioxidant activities were observed as compounds 3 and 6, respectively.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6612440">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6612440</a></strong></p> 2022-06-03T22:34:48+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/567 Biological properties and polyphenols content of Algerian Cistus salviifolius L. aerial parts 2022-05-22T20:07:50+02:00 Sihem Boubekeur chimieanalytiquesi@gmail.com Mohammed Messaoudi messaoudi2006@yahoo.fr Chinaza Godswill Awuchi awuchi.chinaza@kiu.ac.ug Olutosin Ademola Otekunrin otekunrin.olutosina@pg.funaab.edu.ng Barbara Sawicka barbara.sawicka@gmail.com Samira Idjeri-Mecherara Idjeri-Mecherara@gmail.com Sihem Bouchareb Bouchareb@gamil.com Aicha Hassani aicha_hassani2@yahoo.fr Majid Sharifi-Rad dsharifirad@uoz.ac.ir Samir Begaa samirbegaa@yahoo.fr Abdelkrim Rebiai rebiai-abdelkrim@univ-eloued.dz <p>This study evaluated the <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant properties, antibacterial and antifungal activities and <em>in vivo</em> anti-inflammatory properties, and identifying the phenolic compounds in <em>Cistus salviifolius</em>. The methanolic leaf extract showed the highest antioxidant activity with 6.1±1.60 µg/ml IC<sub>50 </sub>value using DPPH<sup>·</sup> and 55.5±0.20 µg/ml using Reducing Power Activity. The study revealed that the butanolic leaf extract and the aqueous leaf infusion exhibited the strongest growth-inhibiting effect against all Gram positive and Gram negative strains tested, respectively, whereas the methanolic leaf extract showed the strongest antifungal activity against the yeast tested. The MIC value for the butanolic leaf extract was 4 mg/ml against <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em>. The pharmacotoxicological tests proved the safety of the aqueous leaf infusion, which exhibit a moderate anti-inflammatory effect, with a significant inhibition of the oedema development equal to 44.7% compared to 59.3% for the reference product diclofenac sodium. Methanolic extracts of the leaf and flower buds showed varied contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, and hydrolysable tannins; which were 228.4±11.4 mg GAE/g, 34.2±0.6 mg QE/g, and 36.9±2.6 mg TAE/g of the dry weight for leaves; and 241.1±5.4 mg GAE/g, 47.6±4.5 mg QE/g, and 22.0±1.3 mg TAE/g of the dry weight for flower buds, respectively. Analysis of the ethereal and butanolic leaf extracts using Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method coupled with a Photodiode-Array Detector identified thirteen phenolic compounds, including ascorbic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, and orientin.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6561505">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6561505</a></strong></p> 2022-05-21T23:00:40+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/558 A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): current status and challenges 2022-05-19T20:06:43+02:00 Nilay Vishal Singh vinaygkpuniv@gmail.com Harshita Kaushik vinaygkpuniv@gmail.com Vinay Kumar Singh vinaygkpuniv@gmail.com <p>In December, 2019 a new public health crisis threatened the world with the emergence of new zoonotic virus, the 2019 novel coronavirus. SARS-Cov-2 or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 belongs to the family of coronaviruses named for the crown-like spikes on its surfaces. SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019), a contagious viral infection that attacks primarily throat and lungs causing pneumonia-like symptoms. It is speculated that SARS-CoV-2 seem to have come from a bat, but the intermediate reservoir is still unknown. This review will address SARS-CoV-2 structure, clinical features, SARS-CoV-2 genome and its different variant, diagnosis, and treatment and also gives a bird's eye view on the epidemiology and pathology based on current evidence.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6561397">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6561397</a></strong></p> 2022-05-18T20:56:39+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/569 Antidiabetic effect of oral supplementation with Caulerpa racemosa powder 2022-05-18T20:06:33+02:00 Nassima El Habitri nassima.elhabitri@univ-mosta.dz Louiza Belkacemi louiza.belkacemi@univ-mosta.dz <p>Algae are known for their high nutritional value and the presence of bioactive compounds with anti-diabetic activity. In this study, the effects of oral supplementation with the whole powdered green alga <em>Caulerpa racemosa</em> was assessed on biochemical and organic parameters in rat model of type 2 diabetes.&nbsp; Type 2 diabetes model (DM) was induced by high fat diet (HFD) (5.75 kcal/g) combined to streptozotocin injection (35 mg/kg). The DM-C500 and DM-C1000 groups were maintained on HFD and supplemented orally during four weeks with powdered <em>C. racemosa</em> at 500 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. The DM-C0 group was fed with HFD without <em>C. racemosa</em> supplementation. All the experimental rats were maintained on HFD during the 30 days of experiment. <em>C. racemosa</em> at 500 mg/kg improved fasting glycaemia and glucose tolerance. The IPGTT test revealed a decrease (p&lt;0.05) in the fasting glycaemia recorded at the 120th min from day 0 (534 ± 38.88 mg/dL) to day 30 (326 ± 63.05 mg/dL). <em>C. racemosa</em> supplementation prevented liver lipid peroxidation in DM-C500 and DM-C1000 group (12.94 ± 2.20 and 10.48 ± 1.15 nmol MDA/g, respectively) compared to DM-C0 group (35.49 ± 2.30 nmol MDA/g). <em>Caulerpa racemosa</em> at 500 mg/kg, and relatively at 1000 mg/kg, alleviated pancreatic, liver and renal tissue damages compared to DM-C0 groups which displayed injuries in their histological sections. <em>Caulerpa racemosa</em> oral supplementation could represent a possible natural approach to prevent organic and metabolic disorders related to type 2 diabetes.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6560521">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6560521</a></strong></p> 2022-05-18T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/529 CAR-T cell: an epitome for the cure of hematologic malignancies 2022-05-03T20:01:45+02:00 Mohammad Afeef mdafeef03@gmail.com Shreya Bhattacharyya shreya.biochemtech@gmail.com <p>There is an increasing reliance on modern cancer therapies on immunotherapeutic approaches such as immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell therapy (ACT), which includes tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), T cell receptor (TCR)-modified T cells, and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). CAR-T cell therapy provides a unique approach to redirect T cells against distinct tumor antigens. It has generated widespread interest in oncology following several clinical successes in patients suffering from chemorefractory B cell malignancies. Since CAR-T cell therapy is a novel treatment, it does not have a clearly defined protocol. However, a rough protocol for CAR-T cell production is outlined in this article. The manufacturing of clinical-grade CAR-T cells under Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) is a very critical step in CAR-T cell production. However, this step has also become a bioprocessing bottleneck that needs to be surmounted for CAR-T cell therapy to reach a global patient population. CAR-T cells have a wide-ranging application in treatment of cancer. The first trials on B-ALL patients were conducted at MSKCC with conditioning chemotherapy of cyclophosphamide only. In case of CML patients, CAR-T cells that target the IL-1RAP protein have demonstrated the ability to selectively target the quiescent CML stem cells in various preclinical studies. Apart from CML, CAR-T cells can also be used to treat Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). For example, CD7 targeting CAR-T cells have shown effective cytotoxic effect against AML.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6512287">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6512287</a></strong></p> 2022-05-02T21:36:44+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/566 Effects of extraction solvents on polyphenols content and biological activity of Ajuga iva extracts 2022-03-31T19:52:21+02:00 Asmaa Belmimoun belmimoun_asmaa@yahoo.fr Khadidja Side Larbi asmaa.belmimoun@univ-mascara.dz Sarra Benoudane asmaa.belmimoun@univ-mascara.dz Saliha Belhadja asmaa.belmimoun@univ-mascara.dz Aicha Tir Touil Meddah asmaa.belmimoun@univ-mascara.dz <p>Different solvent systems have been used for the extraction of polyphenols from plant material, however, the appropriate solvent system is more effective for extracting the total phenolic of any plant extract and evaluating the antibacterial activity is not determined yet. Thus, the objective of this research was to determine the most effective solvent for extraction and characterization of polyphenols as well as antibacterial activity of the aerial parts <em>Ajuga iva</em> extracts. The Soxhlet method was devised to extract polyphenols from aerials parts of <em>Ajuga iva</em> powders, for this matter, three different solvents were used In order to analyze and quantify the result an in vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the various plant extracts was carried out. The preliminary evaluation of the chemical composition made it possible to highlight the presence of some chemical groups. The quantitative determination of polyphenols is twofold, first the dichloromethanic extract contains the highest levels of polyphenols (3.38 mg GAE/g), second the ethanolic extract contains the highest levels of flavonoids (6.59 mg CE/g DW) and tannins (14.58 mg CE/g DW). On other hand, a remarkable antibacterial activity of some tested extracts was detected. The results showed that solvents with different polarities significantly affected polyphenol content and antibacterial activity.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6402081">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6402081</a></strong></p> 2022-03-31T15:59:56+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/550 Tick saliva antigen-based vaccines, disease protection and prophylaxis 2022-03-27T19:51:54+02:00 Nidhi Yadav rkupadhya@yahoo.com Ravi Kant Upadhyay rkupadhya@yahoo.com <p>This review emphasizes the immune responses to tick infestation and the administration of vaccine to save the life of man and his livestock. There are so many vaccines in operation in various parts of the world. These vaccines have been developed by using tick saliva toxins or recombinant antigens synthesized. This article explains the use of modern molecular tools such as genomics and proteomics in identification and search of new potent antigens which could prepare sizable defense against tick-borne pathogens. The present article also highlights explorations on salivary gland secreted molecules, genes and their expression for preparation of the highly efficacious targeted anti-tick vaccine. There is a need to search feeding inhibitors of ticks so that pathogen transmission can be blocked and easy disruption of enzootic cycle become possible. In addition, protein antigens from tick midgut must be searched to have a new multi-target vaccine to counter-attack tick infestation in various animal and human hosts.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6386931">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6386931</a></strong></p> 2022-03-26T22:04:08+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/556 Understanding the genetic, molecular, and cellular basis of ageing as the biggest risk factor of Alzheimer's disease 2022-03-03T19:44:05+01:00 Meena Yadav myadav@maitreyi.du.ac.in Prama Pandey pramapandey2k@gmail.com Poonam Sharma poonam.sharma@gargi.du.ac.in <p>Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of dementia. The disease is characterized by atrophy of brain tissue, with major physiological, molecular, and anatomical changes being observed in the hippocampus and entorhinal region of the temporal lobe. The risk of developing this disease increases with advancing age. Ageing is a chronological phenomenon wherein a considerable decline is observed in physiological functions due to the complex interplay of various exogenous and endogenous factors such as genetic construction, elevated levels of ROS, decrease in the telomerase activity, and epigenetic factors such as methylation of DNA, histone modification etc. The physiological and molecular changes in an ageing person especially in neurons overlap considerably with those observed during the progression of AD. This article highlights various factors responsible for ageing as well as AD with the latest review of literature. Understanding the factors that bring about the fated changes and how they are associated with the progression of disease can open new doors to bring about better treatment options and help cure an otherwise incurable disease.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6323799">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6323799</a></strong></p> 2022-03-02T21:23:29+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/539 Biological activities of phenolic extracts from Artemisia herba-alba Asso grown in western Algeria 2022-02-20T19:41:46+01:00 Noura Ayad noura.ayad@univ-tiaret.dz Rachida Benaraba rachida.benaraba@gmail.com Houari Hemida hemidahouari@yahoo.fr Fatiha Abdellah fatiha.abdellah@yahoo.fr <p>The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds from <em>Artemisia herba-alba </em>Asso<em>,</em> in order to evaluate their antioxidant and antibacterial activities, <em>in vitro</em>. The extraction of phenolic compounds was carried out by the maceration technique using absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, and distilled water. The quantification of polyphenols and flavonoids was performed using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the aluminum trichloride method, respectively. The evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the extracts was carried out by the FRAP, the DPPH• radical trapping, and the neutralization of the hydrogen peroxide technique. The lipid peroxidation was assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In addition, the antibacterial activity of the three extracts was tested on <em>Bacillus cereus </em>ATCC 11778, <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>ATCC 33862,<em> Escherichia coli </em>ATCC 2592<em>, </em>and<em> Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>ATCC 27853 bacteria using agar diffusion and agar incorporation methods. The results showed that the methanolic extract was highly rich in polyphenols and flavonoids. Also, the reducing power CE<sub>50</sub> = 249.88 ± 6.07 µg/ml and the inhibition capacity of the DPPH• radical CI<sub>50 </sub>= 34.71 ± 0.96 µg/ml were significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) than the ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Also, a highly significant inhibitory potential of lipid peroxidation was obtained with the methanolic extract (MDA = 66.97 ± 3.61 µmol/g tissue). However, a highly significant hydrogen peroxide scavenging effect was obtained from the ethanolic extract. A better antibacterial activity was obtained with the methanolic and ethanolic extracts.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6172855">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6172855</a></strong></p> 2022-02-19T23:03:40+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/533 Efficacy of essential oils as antiseptics on the productive characteristics of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori L. 2022-01-26T19:19:43+01:00 Salwa S. Pasha ssb01@fayoum.edu.eg Nagat H. Soliman ssb01@fayoum.edu.eg <p>The study aimed to test the efficacy of three essential oils (basil <em>Ocimum basilicum</em> L., lemon <em>Citrus limon</em> (L.) Osbeck, and thyme <em>Thymus vulgaris</em> L.) as disinfectants, including their positive and negative effects, on the biological and productive parameters of the silkworm <em>Bombyx mori</em>. Biological parameters: basil oil treatment at 2000 ppm the highest significant 5<sup>th</sup> instar larval weight and pupal weight were 2.226 g and 0.787 g. In addition, at the same concentration, recorded the lowest significant mortality percentage and 5<sup>th</sup> instar larval duration, were 0.787 g and 5.09% respectively. On the other hand, lemon and thyme oils at 4000 ppm come in the second place the same parameters, compared to the control and the chemical disinfectant. While it is equal to the concentration of 8000 ppm for the oils tested in all biological parameters with the control and chemical disinfectant. Economical parameters: basil oil at 2000 ppm and lemon and thyme oils at 4000 ppm had the highest significance for cocoon weights, cocoon shell weight, and silk productivity, which were 1.203 g, 0.220 g, 2.34 cg for basil oil, 1.139 g, 0.210 g, 2.367 cg for lemon oil and 1.265 g, 0.216 g, 2.397 cg for thyme oil, compared with control and disinfectant chemical groups (0.993 g, 0.157 g, 1.49 cg and 0.991 g, 0.160 g, 1.68 cg, respectively). The highest significant difference of cocoon percentages was seen with basil oil at 2000 ppm, compared to the other treatments.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5906591">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5906591</a></strong></p> 2022-01-26T15:07:15+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/542 About food safety, viruses and fish 2022-01-17T19:13:07+01:00 Alejandro De Jesús Cortés-Sánchez alecortes_1@hotmail.com <p>Fish is considered an essential food in the human diet due to its nutritional qualities and is widely consumed around the world. The source of fish destined for human use and consumption is through capture fisheries and aquaculture activities. Although fish is a food of nutritional quality, it is also a food susceptible to deterioration and microbiological contamination, putting the health of consumers at risk. The different viruses are considered hazards of biological origin in food that cause various outbreaks of diseases through the consumption of fish, and products derived from their contamination in distinct phases of the food chain, through contaminated water and food handlers. Therefore, this document aims to provide an overview of foodborne diseases and causative agents, especially viruses, through a bibliographic review. In the production and commercialization of foods such as fish and products, it is considered that actions to control and prevent viral diseases, sanitary regulation and microbiological analysis tests should be involved, all in favor of the promotion and safeguarding of public health through the availability and consumption of safe food and water.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5865046">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5865046</a></strong></p> 2022-01-17T15:23:41+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/521 Cytological and chromosomal damages induced by tartrazine and two classes (III and IV) of caramel food dyes 2022-01-10T19:10:06+01:00 Meryem Nassar meryem4321@yahoo.fr <p>Food colors such as tartrazine (E102), ammonia caramel (E150c), sulphite ammonia caramel (E150d) are widely used in the food sector. These additives are thought to be a long-term toxicity source. The goal of our research is to emphasize the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the three food colors at various concentrations (0.5 %, 1 %, and 2 %) using <em>Allium cepa </em>test. The species is thought to be one of the best for assessing genotoxicity&nbsp; because of its low chromosomal number and lengthy chromosomes. The findings revealed that the three dyes have a cytotoxic impact, as seen by root growth inhibition after 120&nbsp; h of incubation. The three food dyes had a genotoxic effect, as measured by a decrease in mitotic index and an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations such as chromosomal bridge, stickiness, and vagrant chromosomes, at both concentrations 0.5% and 1%.&nbsp; At 2 %, &nbsp;the mitotic index was reported as &nbsp;0 and several cytological abnormalities (binucleate and micronucleated cells and fragmented nuclei) were noted.&nbsp; However, further <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> cytogenetic experiments treating cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the three food dyes using alternative test models (animals, cell lines) will be needed to better understand their mechanisms of action.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5831912">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5831912</a></strong></p> 2022-01-09T21:01:09+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/519 Anti-fibrotic agents could be the game-changer for post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis treatment 2022-01-02T19:03:25+01:00 Pallab Chakraborty pallabchakraborty59@gmail.com Kaustav Chakraborty kaustavc17@gmail.com <p>More than 220 countries and territories are globally affected by the recent pandemic COVID-19 which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is possibility of third wave of this pandemic as per epidemiological and public health experts. Besides that post-COVID-19 complications are alarming matter to look upon. Post-COVID-19 complications include several symptoms like as persistent fever; cough; fatigue; headache; attention disorder; dyspnea; anosmia; ageusia; chest pain discomfort; various respiratory illness; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) etc., and here the things to worry about is the development of pulmonary fibrosis after COVID-19. In some COVID-19 patients, hyper-inflammation in the form of ‘cytokine storm’ along with dysregulated immune response, alveolar epithelial tissue injury and wound repair collectively cause this secondary pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, using anti-fibrotic agents e.g. pirfenidone, nintedanib and other natural compounds could be meaningful in these circumstances although their efficacy in treating COVID-19 is subject to more detailed laboratory research works. In this review article, we have discussed the progression of pulmonary fibrosis development which is triggered by COVID-19; probable solutions with anti-fibrotic agents including anti-fibrotic drugs, some well-known natural compounds, combined anti-fibrotic therapies; and the current challenges of this field.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5813126">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5813126</a></strong></p> 2022-01-01T21:56:05+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/487 Inhibition of Aspergillus VosA protein by lactic acid bacteria metabolites (in silico study) 2021-10-29T17:20:18+02:00 Nora Laref nora.laref@cu-relizane.dz R. Premkumar rjpremphy@gmail.com Sameer Quazi colonel.quazi@gmail.com <p>In this work, we performed an <em>in silico</em> study using 3D structure protein of VosA, and analyzed the protein interaction via molecular docking using PyRx to test the inhibition efficacy of 15 metabolites compounds produced by lactic acid bacteria in conidia germination protein of <em>Aspergillus</em>. The antifungal docking findings revealed that these compounds showed good interactions and binding affinity against the target involved in conidia germination. The highest binding energy (-6.3 kcal/mol) was given by stearic acid. This interaction is due to the residue amines Ser and Phe. Palmitic acid also showed a good binding affinity with -6 kcal/mol. Lactic acid has not the same efficiency as palmitic, and stearic acid, which represented a value of -3.6 kcal/mol, the values recorded by cytidine was from -5 kcal/mol, which was also important compared to oxalic and acetic acid.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5609996">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5609996</a></strong></p> 2021-10-28T23:19:34+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/514 Silkworm larvae (Bombyx mori) can learn cues associated with finding food 2021-10-29T17:20:20+02:00 Tomohisa Takahashi 201a513a@stu.kobe-u.ac.jp Takumi Hasegawa nicole1428252@gmail.com Yuichi Egi yuchin122@gmail.com Katsuhiko Sakamoto ksakamoto@diamond.kobe-u.ac.jp <p>The present study investigated the ability of silkworm <em>Bombyx mori</em> (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) larvae to learn. Silkworm larvae were trained to consume food that was placed on red paper; consequently they became attracted to red, rather than blue paper even in the absence of food. In contrast, untrained controls had no preference for either red or blue paper. These results suggested that silkworm larvae learned to associate red paper with food, and that they can discriminate colors.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5609468">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5609468</a></strong></p> 2021-10-28T22:56:51+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/489 Assessment of polyphenols contents, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Origanum majorana extracts 2021-10-29T17:20:21+02:00 Abderrahim Benslama abderrahim.benslama@univ-msila.dz Samira Daci samira.daci@gmail.com Larbi Zakaria Nabti nabti.zack@gmail.com Hamdi Bendif hamdi.bendi@gmail.com Abdenassar Harrar harrar.nacer@gmail.com <p>The Algerian flora contains many species of vascular plants, including aromatic and medicinal plants, which can be very used for the treatment of diseases and health care. <em>Origanum majorana</em> is an Algerian medicinal plant used in the traditional pharmacopoeia. This work was conducted to evaluate the total polyphenolic content, antibacterial effect, and antioxidant capacity of <em>O. majorana</em> extracts. The extraction was carried out using the aerial parts of <em>O. majorana</em> with water and methanol to produce the aqueous extract (Aq.E) and the methanolic extract (Met.E). The total polyphenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were estimated using colorimetric method. The antibacterial effect was evaluated by the method of disc diffusion. ABTS, DPPH radical scavenging, and reducing power were used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. So, the results showed that the highest concentrations of polyphenolic amounts and flavonoids were recorded in the Met.E with values of 68.66 µg EAG/mg E and 11.71 µg EQ/mg E, respectively. Moreover, all extracts showed a good antibacterial effect against <em>B. cereus</em> with inhibition zones ranging from 9 to 13 mm, and moderate activity against <em>S. aureus </em>and<em> P. aeruginosa</em>. In addition, the Met.E showed the highest effect in case of DPPH and ABTS free radical (EC<sub>50</sub>=16.15±0.2 µg/ml and 19.66±0.56 µg/ml, respectively). This study demonstrated that the Met.E of <em>O. majorana</em> contains bioactive compounds that are related to potential biological activities, such as antioxidant and antibacterial effect.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5608519">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5608519</a></strong></p> 2021-10-28T18:30:42+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/493 Organ dependency variation of the chemical composition of Ziziphus lotus volatile fractions 2021-10-07T16:49:06+02:00 Touka Letaief touka.letaief@gmail.com Stefania Garzoli stefania.garzoli@uniroma1.it Elisa Ovidi eovidi@unitus.it Antonio Tiezzi antoniot@unitus.it Chokri Jeribi chokri.jeribis@gmail.com Manef Abderrabba abderrabbamanef@gmail.com Jamel Mejri jamel.mejri.faq@gmail.com <p>The extended application fields of the essential oils keep them a subject of interest. In this study, we investigated the aerial part essential oil and the fruit essential oil of the wild plant&nbsp;<em>Ziziphus lotus</em>, collected from the southern region of Tunisia. These essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus showed an extraction yield of 0.013% and 0.0046% respectively. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the samples using GC-MS/GC-FID revealed two distinct compositions. Apocarotenoid derivatives characterized the essential oil of the aerial part; the major compound was hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (23.2%) followed by geranylacetone (12.5%) and cis-hexenyl-3-benzoate (11.1%). While the abundance of fatty acid marked the fruit essential oil. The noticed major compounds were 2-pentadecanone (16.9%), dodecanoic acid ethyl ester (14.5%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (13.0%). Such chemical composition may explain the traditional use of&nbsp;<em>Ziziphus lotus</em>&nbsp;as a drug to treat various pathologies.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5552960">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5552960</a></strong></p> 2021-10-06T17:07:57+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.tmkarpinski.com/index.php/ejbr/article/view/480 Antifungal and antioxidant activities of Artemisia herba-alba Asso 2021-10-06T16:48:08+02:00 Asma Boukhennoufa Boukhennoufa.Asma@outlook.fr Souhila Benmaghnia asma.boukhennoufa@univ-mascara.dz Yamina Maizi asma.boukhennoufa@univ-mascara.dz Aicha Meddah Tir Touil asma.boukhennoufa@univ-mascara.dz Boumediene Meddah asma.boukhennoufa@univ-mascara.dz <p><em>Artemisia herba-alba</em> Asso was used since ancient times as a painkiller of gynecological diseases and in the Moroccan folk medicine to treat chronic disease like diabetes, arterial hypertension. The genus of <em>Artemisia</em> was marked as a member of the family of <em>Asteraceae</em>. White wormwood was mentioned also on the list of the flora of Tell Atlas (Oran) subsector as an abundance species with 93 specimens. Chemical analysis of essential oils obtained from this plant by hydrodistillation, revealed the presence of different chemical species, contains santonin, lactones of sesquiterpenic acids. Flavonoids, coumarins, and tannins were found in extracts. In the most cases, there was no toxic effect observed on animals after receiving repeated or single doses of <em>A. herba-alba</em> Asso either in the form of extracts or essential oils. Essential oils, organic and aqueous extracts of the same plant have shown antioxidant properties against free radicals measured by DPPH, β-carotene-bleaching and metal chelating power tests. There is a great potency of this plant by interacting of its compounds with constituents of fungal cells; chitin, wall of cell, membrane ergosterol and eukaryotic nucleus, and by way of consequence disrupting their synthesis. It is well-known, that the hyphal growth of fungal pathogens was inhibited by sesquiterpenes lactones. This plant seemed potent in term of biological activities and can be used as potential alternative remedies for the treatment of many infectious and oxidative diseases.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5552721">http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5552721</a></strong></p> 2021-10-06T16:07:09+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##