European Journal of Biological Research 2023-11-17T01:10:01+01:00 Joanna Bródka Open Journal Systems <p><strong>ISSN: 2449-8955</strong><br><strong><a title="MNiSW points: 11" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">MNiSW points 2016: 11<br></a></strong><strong><a title="ICV: 100.00" href=",p24783440,3.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICV 2018: 100.00</a></strong><br><strong>Acceptance rate: 44% (2019)</strong></p> Role of carvacrol and menthone in maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) management 2023-11-17T01:10:01+01:00 Mukesh Kumar Chaubey Namita Kumar <p>Insecticides of synthetic origin used indiscriminately to manage insect pest populations are known for genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and teratogenicity in non-target organisms as well as the development of resistance in target insects. These issues have focused insect pest management research towards the use of plant-based chemicals of a volatile nature. In this study, two plant-origin volatile compounds, carvacrol and menthone have been evaluated for their potential insecticidal properties against the maize weevil <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). These two natural volatile chemicals repelled adults and caused lethality in adults as well as larvae. These two volatile chemicals inhibited acetylcholine esterase enzyme activity in adults when fumigated with sub-lethal concentrations. Both volatile chemicals reduced oviposition potential, progeny production and feeding behavior as well as prolonged the developmental period of the insect. Therefore, it can be concluded that these two natural volatile chemicals can be used in the preparation of volatile chemical-based formulations in the management of maize weevil <em>S. zeamais</em>.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2023-11-16T21:53:50+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Use of Arthrobotrys spp. in biocontrol of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita 2023-10-18T00:43:59+02:00 Cafer Eken Gülsüm Uysal Dudu Demir Selda Çalışkan Emre Sevindik Kardelen Çağlayan <p>Plant parasitic nematodes are well-known and devastating pathogens of many agricultural crops around the world. Among the plant phytoparasitic, root-knot nematodes (<em>Meloidogyne</em> spp.) are the economically important limiting factors in agricultural productivity and the quality of crops. One of the most destructive species of root-knot nematodes is <em>Meloidogyne incognita</em> among the most important plant pests which cause severe problems in economically important crops such as vegetables, fruits, and ornamental plants. Root-knot nematodes can be managed by resistant cultivars, crop rotation, cultural practices, chemical nematicides and biocontrol agents. However, the use of nematicides can cause significant problems, including environmental pollution and long-term residue issues. Therefore, biological control with fungus is agriculturally useful an exciting and rapidly developing research area and especially there is growing attention to the exploitation of fungi for the control of nematodes. Nematophagous fungi are an important group of soil microorganisms that can suppress the populations of plant parasitic nematodes. These fungi can be divided into four main categories: endoparasitic fungi, nematode-trapping fungi, fungi that parasitic egg and female, and toxin-producing fungi. Among the nematophagous fungi, nematode-trapping fungi which are natural enemies of nematodes are the most studied. The nematode-trapping fungi develop hyphal structures. <em>Arthrobotrys</em> spp. are a well-known nematode-trapping fungus with biocontrol potential against root-knot nematodes, including <em>M. incognita</em>. The objective of this paper is to summarize the data on the potential for use of <em>Arthrobotrys</em> spp. in biocontrol of the root-knot nematode <em>M. incognita</em>.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2023-10-17T23:01:33+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The effect of low doses of glyphosate on reactive oxygen species production by human granulocytes 2023-10-11T00:37:39+02:00 Jacek Sikora Joanna Jagielska Krzysztof Kaszkowiak <p>Glyphosate is the base of numerous herbicides used widely all over the world. Strong hepato- and nephrotoxicity of high doses of this reagent was reported in laboratory animal studies. In European Union countries the acceptable daily intake for humans is set at 0.5 mg/kg body weight. We investigated the effects of glyphosate on peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) at relatively low concentrations of the reagent, from 0.01 mg/L to 10 mg/L (from ~0.06 μM to 59 μM). As the biological half-life of this compound in the human body is estimated to be 3 to 10 hours, we decided to incubate blood samples with glyphosate for a period of one hour. Such incubation caused a statistically significant increase of reactive oxygen species production in granulocytes stimulated with N-formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine and <em>Escherichia coli</em> cells. This increase was not associated with the toxic effects of glyphosate or with increased phagocytic activity of granulocytes. The reagent, when applied at specified concentrations, did not induce a respiratory burst in granulocytes or affect the amount of production of reactive oxygen species in blood samples stimulated with 12-myristate phorbol 13-acetate. On the basis of the results obtained, it may be suggested that glyphosate affects signaling pathways leading to NADPH oxidase activation, independent of protein kinase C activation. Thus, it can be concluded that although low doses of glyphosate are not harmful to humans, synergistic effects of this compound with other environmental pollutants may be an important part of pathogenic mechanisms.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2023-10-10T20:49:16+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Papillomavirus and cervical cancer: epidemiological study in a population of women in eastern Algeria 2023-10-05T00:32:09+02:00 Nedjoua Sekhri-Arafa Abdelhakim Khainnar <p>Cervical cancer, predominantly caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), is a significant public health issue in Algeria. While HPV is the primary pathogenic agent and sexually transmitted, other sexual and non-sexual factors also contribute as co-factors in the progression of HPV infection to cervical cancer. This study aims to identify the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical cancer in Algeria. The study included 54 women with cervical-vaginal smear abnormalities due to HPV infection, with an average age of 42.29 years (range: 25 to 65 years) and 7.40% being menopausal. Women married at an average age of 22.52 years, with 25.92% marrying before age 25 and 37.04% between 20 and 25 years. Parity ranged from 1 to 10 children, with an average of 4.96 births per woman. Among the women studied, 48.14% had an erosive cervix, 37.03% experienced cervix bleeding on contact, 11.11% had polypoid lesions, 7.4% were diabetic, and 7.4% had a history of recurrent genital infection. Cervical cancer is preventable through vigilant screening and early diagnosis. With an estimated incidence of 15.6 per 105,000 women annually, it ranks as the second most common cancer in Algerian women, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Emphasizing the importance of timely detection, this study highlights the need for proactive measures to combat cervical cancer, reducing its human and financial burdens.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2023-10-04T11:31:35+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Identification of a novel mutation of rare CLN6 case and computation protein structure 2023-10-04T00:31:57+02:00 Fozhan Saboori Nazanin Ghaderi Nejad Naghmeh Gholipour <p>Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), also known as Batten disease, jointly account for the highest incidences of hereditary neurodegenerative disease in childhood. This disease is mainly presented by vision loss, ataxia, premature mortality in later stages, and epileptic seizures. NCLs are categorized into different types that rely on deficiencies in several genes. CLN6 is one of the identified NCLs, and a mutated gene affects a transmembrane protein embedded in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (RM). Here, we report two cases presenting clinical features of CLN6. A homozygous novel mutation NM_017882.2: Exon 7: c.268A&gt;G (p.Asn90Asp) as well as another homozygous mutation in NM_017882.2: Exon 3: c.679G&lt;A. Following the finding of novel mutation, the Sanger sequencing method was employed to confirm the outcome. Also, we performed a 3D structure prediction for the CLN6 protein. InterPro was taken advantage to assess the domains and function in mutated sites. Both mutations are located in the extracellular domain of the CLN6 protein.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2023-10-03T23:09:53+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Accumulation of heavy metals in soil: sources, toxicity, health impacts, and remediation by earthworms 2023-08-01T23:34:33+02:00 Nishat Fatima Keshav Singh <p>Heavy metals pose serious threats to both individuals and the environment, and there is growing global concern over potentially harmful elements. Heavy metal contamination can have a significant impact on the soil ecosystem's functioning. This requires convenient, efficient, and beneficial remediation approaches. The “ecosystem engineer”, earthworms, can modify and enhance soil quality. The ability of earthworms to bioaccumulate metals in substantial amounts in their tissues makes them potentially beneficial as an ecological indicator of soil pollution. Vermiremediation is a new discipline of research in which earthworms are used to detoxify organically contaminated soils. Earthworms have an influential metabolic system, and their gut bacteria and chloragocyte cells play a significant role in their tendency to valorize and detoxify heavy metals. Remediation by earthworms can be considered sustainable, efficient, and ecologically beneficial. The present review provides a wide range of information on earthworms' appropriateness as prospective species for bioremediation and detoxification of toxic metal-contaminated soil to mitigate human health and environmental problems.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2023-08-01T21:58:18+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Indigenous plant Cannabis sativa: a comprehensive ethnobotanical and pharmacological review 2023-07-05T23:16:46+02:00 Nilay Vishal Singh Vinay Kumar Singh <p><em>Cannabis sativa</em> (L.) is a plant indigenous to Central Asia and South-East Asia. It is widely used in ethnomedicines as an anti-inflammatory,&nbsp;antioxidant, analgesic, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, anticancer, antitumor, neuroprotective, anti-mutagenic, anti-allergic, and antibiotic. Numerous <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> investigations have already established these attributes of <em>Cannabis</em>. Numerous toxicological studies have demonstrated the dose-dependent toxicity of <em>C. sativa</em> against various pests. The exact identity of the phytoconstituents of <em>C. sativa </em>responsible for the observed biological effects and their mode of action at the molecular level is yet to be ascertained. This review provides a comprehensive update to the ethnomedicinal, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity, and toxicological profile of <em>Cannabis sativa</em>.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2023-06-12T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Multidrug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from medical centers of Batna (north-east Algeria) 2023-06-02T23:01:16+02:00 Manel Merradi Nessiba Kerriche Selma Kerriche Ahmed Kassah-Laouar Nouzha Heleili <p>The emergence of resistant strains of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> is a major public health problem mainly in hospitals around the world and in Algeria in particular. This work aims to assess the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in the University Hospital Center of Batna and the Hematology Unit of the Anti-Cancer Center using conventional standardized methods during a study period of four months. A total of&nbsp; 70 strains of <em>S. aureus</em> were isolated and their antibiotic susceptibility study showed significant resistance to β-lactam especially to penicillin (95.71%) and&nbsp; 61.43% to tobramycin. The methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) formed 30%. Resistant strains to macrolide-lincosamide streptogramin B (MLSB) and aminoglycosides (KTG) classes presented 17.14% and 21.43% respectively. These results require a control plan by compliance with the hygiene conditions and the organization of the prescription of antibiotics and other molecular and epidemiological studies.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2023-06-02T00:18:36+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In vivo assessment of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Phlomis crinita polyphenols 2023-05-04T21:19:06+02:00 Hanane Boutennoun Lilia Boussouf Nassima Balli Lila Boulekbache Makhlouf Khodir Madani Khaled Al-Qaoud <p>The leaves of <em>Phlomis crinita</em> are traditionally used in Algerian medicine for the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. In order to find a potential application for this native species, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects were investigated on various <em>in vivo</em> experimental models, and the total phenolic compounds and flavonoid contents were determined. The carrageenan-induced paw edema method was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract <em>in vivo</em>, while the <em>in vivo</em> antioxidant effect was assessed by estimating oxidative stress parameters (MDA, CAT, and SOD). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of substances with high therapeutic values. <em>In vivo</em> anti-inflammatory studies show that plant extract has a significant and dose-dependent impact on the inhibition of edema formation. The maximum percentage inhibition value was 87.79% after 4 h at a concentration of 500 mg/kg. Moreover, the administration of the extract significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the livers of mice. It significantly (<em>p ˂</em> 0.05) increased CAT and SOD activities and significantly (<em>p ˂</em> 0.05) decreased the MDA level activity, compared to the control inflammatory group. Our findings support that <em>Phlomis crinita</em> can be considered as a promising source of therapeutic bioactive compounds.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2023-04-24T22:26:05+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Toxigenic fungi and contamination by AFB1 in Algerian traditional foods markets 2023-04-24T22:42:09+02:00 Ammar-Rachad Medjdoub Abdellah Moussaoui Houcine Benmehdi <p>This work focused on the realization of a mycological and mycotoxicological study of certain foods manufactured in a traditional way (couscous and spice of <em>Capsicum annuum</em> known locally under the name of sweet hror) and marketed in the city of Bechar. The physico-chemical analyzes revealed that all the samples were poorly hydrated where the average values ​​of relative humidity ranged between 7.23% and 13.58%. For the pH, the values ​​varied between 5.22 and 6.95. The enumeration of the fungal flora indicated that the couscous samples (coarse and fine) represented a contamination rate of 2.92*10<sup>2</sup> and 1.71*10<sup>2</sup> CFU/g respectively. While, the sweet hror samples represented a higher contamination rate (4.68*10<sup>2</sup> CFU/g), with a clear dominance of the genera of <em>Aspergillus</em> (46.42%) and <em>Penicillium</em> (26.28%). Otherwise, the mycotoxicological analysis showed us that 78.55% of the <em>Aspergillus</em> isolates of the group (<em>flavus</em>-<em>parasiticus</em>) tested were producers of aflatoxins (B<sub>1</sub> and G<sub>1</sub>) and that 86.66% of the isolates of <em>A</em>. <em>ochraceus</em> and 40% of <em>Penicillium </em>species, were ochratoxin A producers. In addition, the detection of mycotoxins at the sample level revealed that 63.63% of couscous samples were contaminated with mycotoxins. While sweet hror was the most contaminated (78.57%). Furthermore, the quantification of AFB<sub>1</sub> by HPLC-FLD for 4 samples of sweet hror revealed only one contaminated sample (21.75 µg/kg). Generally, it can be admitted that the rate of contamination by AFB<sub>1</sub> was too high, which can be considered a real risk to human health.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2023-04-24T21:14:26+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Potential utilization of industrial waste as feed material for the growth and reproduction of earthworms 2023-03-13T22:20:06+01:00 Anjali Singh Keshav Singh <p>The issue of managing organic waste such as animal waste and industrial waste has emerged as a result of the fast development in urbanization around the world. It can be hazardous to the environment and public health if these are not properly stored, collected, and disposed of. These biological wastes can be turned into nutrient-rich biofertilizers using the vermicomposting process. The bio-oxidative method includes the combined activity of earthworms and microbes. The pH, organic carbon, organic matter, and the C:N ratio of the various organic waste mixtures showed a declining tendency during this process but the content of nitrogen, available phosphorous and exchangeable potassium showed a rising trend as the vermicomposting time progressed. Maximum earthworm growth and reproduction were reported better in different feed materials prepared from industrial wastes. Therefore, the present review article is based on the knowledge of using earthworms to stabilize waste.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2023-03-13T20:38:18+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mucosal membranes, their interactions to microbial infections and immune susceptibility in human hosts 2023-03-03T22:17:10+01:00 Ravi Kant Upadhyay <p>This article presents mucosal immune defense in response to various pathogenic infections in different hosts including man. Internally, the mucosal layer (membrane) covers the respiratory, digestive, nasal, and urogenital systems and serves as a physical barrier against many groups of infections. The host pathogen's interaction with membrane receptors is highlighted in this article, as well as the commensal gut microbiota's protective function in directing both general and targeted immune defense. In order to combat numerous diseases of various types, this review emphasizes the importance of crosstalk between mucosal locations, mucosal adjuvant design, and antigen delivery mechanisms. Additionally, it denotes the function of inflammasomes, lipocalin 2, Muc2 hyaluronan, and probiotics in maintaining homeostasis, regulating the gut microbiota, and enhancing immunological protection against enteric infection and gastrointestinal inflammation. For novel potential vaccines that could activate innate and adaptive immunity in mucosal tissue, there is an urgent need to look for new protective antigens, delivery mechanisms, and mucosal adjuvants. In order to prevent the spread of infections that are drug-resistant, seek protection, and assure host immunological tolerance, this article emphasizes the necessity for new antigens in the construction of new vaccines.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2023-03-02T23:04:33+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Blocking IgE with L-glutamic acid analogs as an alternative approach to allergy treatment 2023-02-28T22:16:46+01:00 Débora Mothé de Campos-Mesquita Giliane Silva de Souza Marinete Pinheiro Carrera Arthur Giraldi-Guimarães Olga Lima Tavares Machado <p>IgE-mediated allergic diseases have increased in the last decades. The most prevalent allergens from these seeds are Ric c1 and Ric c3, isoforms of 2S albumin. These allergenic proteins cross-react with allergens from peanut, shrimp, fish, corn, gramineous, house dust, and tobacco. The usual allergy treatment employs antihistaminic, immunotherapies and, omalizumab (Xolair)-based anti-IgE therapy. However, antihistaminics relieve symptoms, and the high cost of omalizumab limits its use for continuous treatment. We propose an alternative immunotherapeutic approach, denoted “IgE-blockage” by L-glutamic acid or modified-glutamic acid. Six compounds, D-glutamic acid, L-glutamic acid, N-methyl-L-glutamic acid, N-acetyl-L-glutamic acid, N-(4-nitrobenzoyl)-L-glutamic acid, and N-carbamyl-L-glutamic, were tested as a blocker. To evaluate motor coordination and the sedative/hypnotic activity of L-glutamic acid, a rota-rod test and a thiopental sodium-induced sleeping test were used. The compounds, L-glutamic acid and L-nitrobenzoyl glutamic acid, were the most active compounds to block the interaction of castor allergens with IgE. These compounds also prevent cross-responses with allergens from food sources and inhalants that cross-react with them. In the sleeping test, the groups that received L-glutamic acid at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg had a sleeping time similar to the vehicle control group. No changes in the animals' behavior were observed and there was no difference between the L-glutamic acid groups and the vehicle control groups in the rota-rod test. L-glutamic acid and L-nitrobenzoyl glutamic acid can used as IgE blocker to prevent allergic diseases.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2023-02-28T21:06:22+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antidiabetic potential of mucilage fraction extracted from Astragalus gyzensis seeds 2023-02-07T22:06:00+01:00 Aicha Tedjani Zakaria Boual Mohamed Didi Ould El Hadj Touhami Lanez Hakim Belkhalfa Zainab El Alaoui-Talibi Cherkaoui El Modafar Slim Abdelkafi Imen Fendri Didier Le Cerf Pascal Dubessay Cédric Delattre Pierre Guillaume Philippe Michaud <p>The objective of the current work is to extract a new mucilage fraction from <em>Astragalus gyzensis </em>Bunge. seeds, which are collected from the El-Oued province (septentrional Algerian Sahara) and evaluated for their antidiabetic potential. The mucilage fraction is obtained using hot water extraction followed by alcoholic precipitation of polysaccharides by cold ethanol (96%). The primary investigation was performed by describing the main structural features of the extract through colorimetric assays, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography analysis using two systems. Biological activity was also monitored by antidiabetic activity by testing the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes in vitro. The extraction yield was 20.69%. The chemical composition mainly consisted of 78.60±0.29% carbohydrates, among them 63.92±0.67% neutral sugar, 15.78±0.76% uronic acid, 8.08±0.04% proteins and 2.57±0.05% phenolic compounds. The results obtained by thin-layer chromatography analysis showed the dominance of mannose and galactose. Fourier-transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic bands expected galactomannans. The investigations highlighted the antihyperglycemic effect in a dose-dependent manner by the inhibition of the α-amylase enzyme (IC50=0.8±0.005 mg/mL). These factors make it suitable for the industrial application of dietary supplement fiber made for diabetic individuals.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2023-02-07T21:51:51+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analyses of Omicron genomes from India reveal BA.2 as a more transmissible variant 2023-02-05T22:03:38+01:00 Ashwin Atkulwar Aakif Rehman Yashal Imaan Mumtaz Baig <p>In the current study, the phylodynamics and phylogenomics of Omicron variants are being examined to provide insight into their evolution. We analyzed 564 genomes deposited to the GISAID database from various states of India. A Pangolin COVID-19 Lineage Assigner tool was used to assign lineages to all retrieved genomes. Maximum likelihood (MLE) tree construction and Reduced Median Joining (RM) network were performed. For phylodynamic analysis, the basic reproduction number (R0) was estimated. A Maximum likelihood tree (MLE) confirms the separation of genomes into two distinct clades, BA. 1. and BA. 2. A very high reproduction number (R0) of 2.445 was estimated for the lineage BA.2. Telangana has the highest R0 value in the country, indicating a high prevalence of the BA.2 lineage. The construction of the Reduced Median (RM) network reveals an evolution of some autochthonous haplogroups and haplotypes, which further supports the rapid evolution of Omicron as opposed to its previous variants. Phylogenomic analyses using maximum likelihood (ML) and RM also reveal the likelihood of the emergence of sub-sublineages and novel haplogroups respectively. Due to the recombinant nature and high transmissibility of the Omicron virus, we suggest continuous and more widespread genome sequencing in all states of India to track the evolution of SARS-CoV-2.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2023-02-05T21:43:04+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Serum creatinine and urea assays on Atellica® CH and Architect® ci4100: method comparison 2023-01-16T21:54:52+01:00 Hind Zrikem Soumia Nachate Ibtissam Mhirig Saliha Chellak Abderrahman Boukhira <p>Serum creatinine and urea are markers of renal function usually measured in conjunction. This study aims to evaluate the comparability of a new analyzer incorporated to our laboratory, Atellica® with the established analyzer, Architect ® ci 4100 in serum creatinine and urea assays. We ran 110 tests for creatinine and 107 for urea. In both analyzers, serum creatinine assay is based on the Jaffe reaction while urea measurement is based on the Roch-Ramel enzymatic reaction. Linear association between methods was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Methods comparability was assessed using Passing-Bablok and Deming linear regression. Differences between analyzers were evaluated using Bland-Altman plot. For serum creatinine, regression equations are Atellica = 0.9721 x Architect - 2.7282 (Passing &amp; Bablok) and Atellica = 0.8884 x Architect + 1.3456 (Deming). The mean difference between the two methods is -11.7 µmol/L as indicated by Bland-Altman plot. For urea, regression lines are expressed as Atellica = 1.0252 x Architect – 0.1609 (Passing-Bablok) and Atellica = 1.1424 x Architect – 0.9532 (Deming). Bland-Altman plot presented a mean difference of -0.1 mmol/L. These results could be described as a very good agreement between the two methods, the two analyzers could be used interchangeably.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2023-01-16T21:23:42+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impacts of prolonged exposure to low concentration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cell cycle control and DNA repair 2022-12-27T21:43:55+01:00 Nada El Zahed Andreas Kakarougkas <p>Although the toxicological profile of titanium dioxide nanoparticles is not fully illuminated, large quantities of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO<sub>2</sub>NPs) are now produced. In our study, we evaluated the cytotoxic and genotoxic impacts of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on different cell lines (normal, cancer and DNA repair-deficient cells). MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity, γ-H2AX and 53BP1 assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity and G2/M assay was used to study the impacts of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cell cycle regulation. In this study normal and DNA repair-deficient cell lines were used to study the repair mechanism of titanium dioxide nanoparticles induced DNA damage. G2/M checkpoint maintenance was also evaluated. We demonstrate that prolonged exposure to low concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles does not induce significant cytotoxicity but induces significant genotoxicity, particularly DNA double-strand breaks (DNA DSBs). Furthermore, this study demonstrated that DNA DSBs at heterochromatin region are ATM-dependent and DNA DSBs at euchromatin region are ATM-independent and DNA PKcs dependent. After exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles, we show that the activation of G2/M checkpoint is DNA DSBs dependent threshold as does checkpoint release. All in all, we showed that prolonged exposure to low concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles does not affect cell viability but causes DNA damage and cell cycle checkpoint adaptation which may lead to genetic instability.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2022-12-27T20:39:06+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Investigation of antibacterial and antioxidant properties of three medicinal plants from Gaziantep, Turkey 2022-12-17T21:39:20+01:00 Sinem Aydin Mustafa Sümbül <p>Current research aimed to reveal antibacterial and antioxidant properties of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of <em>Phlomis armeniaca</em>, <em>Echinophora tenuifolia</em> subsp. <em>sibthorpiana</em> and <em>Moringa oleifera</em> plants obtained from herbalists in Gaziantep. Extracts of <em>P. armeniaca</em>, <em>E. tenuifolia</em> subsp. <em>sibthorpiana</em> and <em>M. oleifera</em> plants have antibacterial effect at varying degrees against test bacteria. Both ethyl acetate and acetone extracts of <em>P. armeniaca</em> plant exhibited higher antibacterial activity than studied other plant extracts. It was also found that the antioxidant activity increased with increasing concentrations. Since antioxidant and antibacterial activities were observed in almost all of the tested plant extracts, it was concluded that <em>P. armeniaca</em>, <em>E. tenuifolia</em> subsp. <em>sibthorpiana</em> and <em>M. oleifera</em> plants could be natural sources of antioxidant and antibacterial.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2022-12-16T22:01:44+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Kebbi state, Nigeria 2022-12-10T21:37:35+01:00 Victor Oluwatosin Olaosebikan Shuaibu Bala Manga Yusuf Kanya Danladi Augustine Chijioke Udefi Ayodele Isaac Adedokun <p>Tuberculosis remains a global public health burden in low and middle-income countries. The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microbial strains in high-burden countries like Nigeria pose a threat to achieving the One health approach. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of rifampicin resistance in sputum specimens of patients in Kebbi State, Nigeria using the GeneXpert Assay. It was a retrospective cross-sectional study and was carried out in Kebbi, North-Western Nigeria among patients who were confirmed positive for tuberculosis infection and visited the designated health zones, for various local government areas within the state. Sputum samples were analyzed using the GeneXpert technique. Data entry was made using Microsoft Excel and analyzed with SPSS version 20. A p-value less than 0.05 was taken as significant. The overall prevalence of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (RR-MTB) was 5.8% (14/240). The majority of the study participants were within the age grade 31-40 years (8.77%) and male participants (7.2%) were preponderant in comparison to female participants (2.7%). There was a significant association between settlement and rifampicin resistance in the study (p=0.05). The results showed that drug-resistant tuberculosis is prevalent in Kebbi State with a higher incidence observed in the Zuru Local Government Area of the state as compared to previous findings. This shows that improving the prevention and control efforts of tuberculosis in the state with relation to adequate regulatory strategies and policy formulation is of paramount importance.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2022-12-09T22:40:33+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Zika and SARS-CoV-2: neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative outcomes 2022-11-29T21:34:40+01:00 Jenniffer Ramos Martins Felipe Emanuel Oliveira Rocha Vivian Vasconcelos Costa, Costa Felipe Ferraz Dias, Dias <p>Through the emergence of new viral infectious diseases, epidemics and pandemics have brought great impacts on public health in recent decades. In this review, we sought to understand the association between the neurological outcomes of two relevant infectious diseases, Zika and COVID-19. Zika can trigger neurological and ophthalmic damage in children born from infected mothers, as well as, Guillain-Barré syndrome, encephalitis, and myelitis in adults. On the other hand, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has great potential to trigger an inflammatory process in the optic nerve, with optic neuritis as the most reported pathology. Although Zika and SARS-CoV-2 infections are associated with different clinical manifestations, both may trigger similar pathogenic processes, through the induction of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines release, triggering neurological and ophthalmological damage in infected patients. Elements in common have been found in both infections, such as antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, and the production of CXCL10, a chemokine responsible for the activation of several cellular types (T cells, eosinophils, monocytes and NK cells) in which are responsible to the induction of a cytokine cascade in the body. Based on these last findings, we suggest that both infections have similar activation characteristics as well as common pathogenic mechanisms associated with central nervous system involvement.</p> <p><strong>DOI: <a href=""></a></strong></p> 2022-11-28T22:40:02+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##