Immunomodulatory and hematological effects induced by diclofenac, ibuprofen or paracetamol toxicity in Swiss albino mice

Soha Gomaa Ramadan Abdel Salam


Anti-inflammatory drugs (both COX-2 inhibitors and nonselective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs = NSAIDs), paracetamol and opioid agents are associated with potentially different adverse events with varying degrees of efficacy. The present work was conducted to elucidate the haemato-immunological changes in mice when treated with diclofenac (Diclo), ibuprofen (Ibu) and paracetamol (Para). Mice were intraperitoneally administered with Diclo (7.4 mg/kg and 14.8 mg/kg), Ibu (60 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg) or Para (36.7 mg/kg and 73.4 mg/kg) daily for one month against saline-treated mice served as control. Diclo administration (14.8 mg/kg) caused decrease in RBCs count, Hb content and Hct%, depending on dose toxicity, while paracetamol and ibuprofen treatment showed increase in RBCs count, Hb content and Hct%. Additionally, all tested drugs induced activities of IgM and C-reactive protein in serum and caused perturbations in absolute and relative weight of immune related organs. Further, Diclo and Para treatments reduced levels of IgG in dose dependent manner however, Ibu administration enhanced activities of IgG that was reduced with increasing dose of Ibu. And activities of serum complement component C3 was diminished after administration of tested drugs activating alternative complement pathway. The implication of this research is that long use of diclofenac, ibuprofen or paracetamol may cause immunotoxic and hematotoxic effects in mice; and the dose plus the duration of treatment may augment their toxicity probably due to immune modulatory effects. Further studies are needed to assess the relevance between Diclo, Ibu or Para treatment and immunological and hematological perturbations.


Immunological and hematological studies; Diclofenac; Ibuprofen; Paracetamol; Toxicity

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