In vitro assessment of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory potential of endophytic fungal metabolites extracts

A. M. Moharram, A. A. Zohri, Hossam El-Din M. Omar, O. A. Abd El-Ghani


Endophytes are endosymbiotic microorganisms that act as reservoir of novel bioactive secondary metabolites with antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anti-cancer activities. In the present study, the extracts of 26 different endophytic fungal strains were screened for their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The results showed a wide variety of antimicrobial activities against 12 target microorganisms including three Gram (+) bacteria, three Gram (-) bacteria, 3 yeasts, 2 dermatophytic fungi and one keratinophilic fungus. Four fungal extracts (Aspergillus versicolor, A. awamori, A. niger and Penicillium funiculosum) displayed a broader antibacterial spectrum and inhibited the growth of all Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacterial species. The extracts of 8 endophytic fungi inhibited the growth of the two tested dermatophytic strains (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum). Only eight fungal extracts have an inhibition activity against the keratinophilic fungal strain (Chrysosporium tropicum). The anti-inflammatory assay showed that the extracts of Emericella nidulans, Pleospora tarda and Penicillium funiculosum had good activities in inhibition of protein denaturation reached to 83%, 82.5% and 81.4%, respectively. Also, Emericella nidulans and Pleospora tarda recorded the maximum inhibition effect on bovine serum albumin denaturation reached to 95% and 90.7%, respectively. On the other side, Emericella nidulans showed the maximum inhibition activity (69.5%) out of all tested endophytic strains against humun red blood cells membrane stabilization assay. In conclusion some secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi have a promising potential as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory compounds.

Full Text:



Sudha V, Govindaraj R, Baskar K, Al-Dhabi NA, Duraipandiyan V. Biological properties of endophytic fungi. Braz Arch Biol Technol. 2016; 59: e16150436.

Huang WY, Cai YZ, Hyde KD, Croke H, Sun M. Biodiversity of endophytic fungi associated with 29 traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Fungal Diver. 2008; 33: 61-75.

Bacon CW, White JF. Microbial endophtes. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 2000: 341-388.

Wasser SP. Medicinal mushrooms as a source of anti-tumor and immuno-modulating polysaccharides. Appl Microb Biotechnol. 2002; 60: 258-274.

Kaneko T, Minamisawa K, Isawa T, Nakatsukasa H, Mitsui H, Kawaharada Y et al. Complete genomic structure of the cultivated rice endophyte Azospirillum sp. B510. DNA Res. 2010; 17: 37-50.

Strobel GA. Rainforest endophytes and bioactive products. Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2002; 22(4): 315-333.

Gouda S, Das G, Sen SK, Shin H-S, Patra JK. Endophytes: a treasure house of bioactive compounds of medicinal importance. Front Microbiol. 2016; 7: 1538.

Guo B, Wang Y, Sun X, Tang K. Bioactive natural products from endophytes: review. Appl Biochem Microbiol. 2008; 44(2): 136-142.

Verma VC, Kharwar RN, Strobel GA. Chemical and functional diversity of natural products from plant associated endophytic fungi. Nat Prod Commun. 2009; 4: 1511-1532.

Stierle AA, Stierle DB. Bioactive secondary metabolites produced by the fungal endophytes of conifers. Nat Prod Commun. 2015; 10(10): 1671-1682.

Tan RX, Zou WX. Endophytes: a rich source of functional metabolites. Nat Prod Rep. 2001; 18: 448-459.

Liang H, Xing Y, Chen J, Zhang D, Guo S, Wang C. Antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Ophiopogon japonicas (Liliaceae). BMC Complem Altern Med. 2012; 12: 238.

Pretsch A, Nagl M, Schwendinger K, Kreiseder B, Wiederstein M, Pretsch D, Genov M, et al. Antimicrobial and anti-Inflammatory activities of endophytic fungi Talaromyces wortmannii extracts against acne-inducing bacteria. PLoS One. 2014; 9(6): e97929.

Yadav M, Yadav A, Yadav JP. In vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of endophytic fungi isolated from Eugenia jambolana Lam. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2014; 7S1: S256-261.

Ogidi OC, Oyetayo VO, Akinyele BJ. In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of extracts obtained from raw and fermented wild macrofungus, Lenzites quercina. Int J Microbiol. 2015; 2015: 1-7.

Davies J. Microbes have the last word. EMBO Rep. 2007; 8: 616-621.

Berahou AA, Auhmani A, Fdil N, Benharref A, Jana M, Gadhi CA. Antibacterial activity of Quercus ilex bark's extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007; 112: 426-429.

Leelaprakash G, Mohan DS. In vitro Anti-Inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Enicostemma axillare. Int J Drug Develop Res. 2011; 3(3): 189-196.

Vadivu R, Lakshmi KS. In vitro and In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of leaves of Symplocos cochinchnensis (Lour) Moore ssp. laurina. Bangl J Pharmacol. 2008; 3: 121-124.

Halliwell B. Antioxidants in human health and disease. Annu Rev Nutr. 1996; 6: 33-50.

Chawla AS, Handa SS, Sharma AK, Kalth. Plant anti-inflammatory agents. J Scient Ind Res. 1987; 46: 214-223.

Ali K, Ashraf A, Biswas N. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrheal activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Typhonium trilobatum L. Schott. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012; 2(9): 722-726.

Mahesh SP, Patil MB, Kumar R, Patil SR. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Borassus flabellifer L. male flowers (inflorescences) in experimental animals. J Med Plants Res. 2009; 3(2): 49-54.

Perez C, Pauli M, Bazerque P. An antibiotic assay by agar-well diffusion method. Acta Biol Med Exp. 1990; 15: 113-115.

Padmanabhan P, Jangle SN. Evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of herbal preparation, a combination of four herbal plants. Int J Basic Appl Med Sci. 2012; 2(1): 109-116.

Williams LA, O’Connar A, Latore L, Dennis O, Ringer S, Whittaker JA, et al. The in vitro anti-denaturation effects induced by natural products and non-steroidal compounds in heat treated (immunogenic) bovine serum albumin is proposed as a screening assay for the detection of anti-inflammatory compounds, without the use of animals, in the early stages of the drug discovery process. West Indian Med J. 2008; 57(4): 327-331.

Shah N, Kataria H, Kaul SC, Ishii T, Kaur G, Wadhwa R. Effect of alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves and its components on proliferation, migration, and differentiation of glioblastoma cells: combinational approach for enhanced differentiation. Cancer Sci. 2009; 100(9): 1740-1747.

Sakat S, Juvekar AR, Gambhire MN. In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata Linn. Int J Pharma Pharmacol Sci. 2010; 2(1): 146-155.

Shing G, Kumar P. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of flavonoids of Withania somnifera L. Indian J Pharmac Sci. 2011; 73(4): 473-478.

Dhamodaran V, Rajeswari G. Antibacterial and phytochemical studies of root extracts of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. Adv Biotechnol. 2012; 12(4): 14-16.

Wang FW, Jiao RH, Cheng AB, Tan SH, Song YC. Antimicrobial potentials of endophytic fungi residing in Quercus variabilis and brefeldin A obtained from Cladosporium sp. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007; 23: 79-83.

Gong LJ, Gou SH. Endophytic fungi from Dracaena cambodiana and Aquilaria sinensis and their antimicrobial activity. Afr J Biotechnol. 2009; 8(5): 731-736.

Kharwar RN, Verma SK, Mishra A, Gond SK, Sharma VK, Afreen T, Kumar A. Assessment of diversity, distribution and antibacterial activity of endophtic fungi isolated from a medicinal plant Adenocalymma alliaceum Miers. Symbiosis. 2011; 55(1): 39-46.

Siqueira VM, Conti R, Araujo JM, Souza-Motta CS. Endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant Lippia sidoides Cham. and their antimicrobial activity. Symbiosis. 2011; 53: 89-95.

Tong WY, Darah I, Latiffah Z. Antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungal isolates from medicinal herb Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. J Med Plants Res. 2011; 5(5): 831-836.

Chareprasert S, Piapukiew J, Thienhirun S, Whalley AJS, Sihanonth P. Endophytic fungi of teak leaves Tectona grandis L. and rain tree leaves Samanea saman Merr. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006; 22: 481-486.

Kalyanasundaram I, Nagamuthu J, Muthukumaraswamy S. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated and identified from salt marsh plant in Vellar Estuary. J Microbiol Antimicrob. 2015; 7(2): 13-20.

Dhankhar S, Dhankhar S, Yadav JP. Investigating antimicrobial properties of endophytic fungi associated with Salvadora oleoides Decne. Anti Infect Agent. 2013; 11: 48-58.

Bugni TS, Ireland CM. Marine-derived fungi: a chemically and biologically diverse group of microorganisms. Nat Prod Rep. 2004; 21: 143-163.

Seddek NH. Bioactive metabolites produced by endophytic fungi isolated from some medicinal plants in Egypt. (PhD) thesis, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Egypt, 2012.

Pharamat T, Palaga T, Piapukiew J, Anthony JS, Whalley, Sihanonth P. Antimicrobial and anticancer activities of endophytic fungi from Mitrajyna javanica koord and Val. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2013; 7(49): 5565-5572.

Kim YS, Lee IK, Seok SJ, Yun BS. Chemical constituents of the fruiting bodies of Clitocybe nebularis and their antifungal activity. Mycobiol. 2008; 36: 110-113.

Sagar K, Vidyasagar GM. Anti-dermatophytic activity of some traditionally used medicinal plants of North Karnataka Region. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2013; 3: 77-83.

Shinkafi SA. Antidermatophytic activities, phytochemical screening and chromatographic studies of Pergularia tomentosa L. and Mitracarpus scaber Zucc. (leaves) used in the treatment of dermatophytoses. Int Res J Microbiol. 2013; 4: 29-37.

Wong JH, Ng TB, Cheung RCF, Ye XJ, Wang HX, Lam SK, et al. Proteins with antifungal properties and other medicinal applications from plants and mushrooms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010; 87: 1221-1223.

Wang H, Ng TB. Ganodermin, an antifungal protein from fruiting bodies of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Peptides. 2006; 27: 27-30.

Sadique J, Al-Rqobahs WA, EI-Gindi BAR. The bioactivity of certain medicinal plants on the stabilization of RBS membrane system. Fitoterapia. 1989; 60: 525-532.

Govindappa M, Channabasava R, Sowmya DV, Meenakshi J, Shreevidya MR, Lavanya A, et al. Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of endophytic extracts from Loranthus sp. J Pharmacogn. 2011; 3(25): 82-90

Chou CT. The anti-inflammatory effects of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. on adjuvant induced paw edema in rats and inflammatory mediators release. Phytother Res. 1997; 11: 152-154.

Festus BC, Patience O, Osadebe. Studies on the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts and fractions of Alchornea floribunda leaves. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2009; 2(3): 7-14.

Ejebe DE, Siminialayi IM, Emudainowho JO, Ofesi U, Morka L. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Helianthus annus in Wistar rats. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2010; 3(5): 341-347.

Diaz P, Jeong SC, Lee S, Khoo C, Koyyalamudi SR. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of selected medicinal plants and fungi containing phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Chin Med. 2012; 7(26): 2-9.

Sankari G, Mounnissamy VM, Balu V. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and membrane stabilizing properties of ethanolic extracts of Diptheracanthus prostates (Acanthaceae). Amala Res Bull. 2009; 29: 88-89.

Joel EL, Bhimba BV. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Mangrove associated fungi. J Pharm Res. 2011; 4(9): 2900-2901.

Rajurkar R, Jain R, Matake N, Aswar P, Khadbadi SS. Antiinflammatory action of Abutilon indicum (L.) sweet leaves by HRBC membrane stabilization. Res J Pharm Tech. 2009; 2(2): 415-416.


  • There are currently no refbacks.