Phenolic profile and biological activities of Aloe barbadensis (Miller) from western Algeria

  • Firdaous Faiza Fedoul Bioconversion, Microbiological, Engineering, and Health Safety Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University of Mustapha Stambouli Mascara, 29000 Mascara, Algeria
  • Boumediene Meddah Bioconversion, Microbiological, Engineering, and Health Safety Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University of Mustapha Stambouli Mascara, 29000 Mascara, Algeria
  • Mohammed Larouci Bioconversion, Microbiological, Engineering, and Health Safety Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University of Mustapha Stambouli Mascara, 29000 Mascara, Algeria
  • Aicha Tir Touil Bioconversion, Microbiological, Engineering, and Health Safety Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University of Mustapha Stambouli Mascara, 29000 Mascara, Algeria
  • Yahya Merazi Department of Biology; Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University Abdelhamid Ibn Badis Mostaganem, Algeria
  • Yavuz Selim Cakmak Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science and Letters, Aksaray University, Aksaray, Turkey
Keywords: Aloe vera, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, HPLC


Aloe vera is widely used in conventional medicine in Algeria to treat various diseases. This study aims to evaluate the chemical composition and biological activities of Aloe vera collected from western Algeria. Two extracts of ethanolic (EEA) and aqueous (AEA) were used to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC was applied to determine the amount of 15 compounds they contain, while the antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method. The antimicrobial activity experiment was conducted against five selected bacterial strains. Finally, an in vivo study on Swiss albino mice was conducted to discover the toxicity using Lorke’s method and anti-inflammatory activity using the Carrageenan method. The EEA extract shows the highest total phenol content of 37.00±0.37mg GAE/g and total flavonoid content of 9.14±0.19 mg CE/g. The AEA contains hydroxybenzoic and benzoic acid with other ingredients (0.84 and 0.82 mg/g, respectively). The EEA contains 0.93 mg/g of benzoic acid. Aloe vera has antioxidant activity with IC50 values equal to 0.821 mg/ml for EEA and 1.993 mg/ml for AEA. The AEA inhibits E. coli and S. aureus with a bacteriostatic effect; EEA is the best inhibitor of S. aureus and S. mutans with the bactericidal effect. Aloe vera is practically nontoxic (LD50 is 3800 mg/kg of the AEA and superior to 5000 mg/kg of EEA). The AEA gives the best inhibition of edema, 85.96% at (100 mg/kg). Aloe vera leaves are an important resource of polyphenols, which have interesting antioxidant power, and antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.



Download data is not yet available.


1. Aldayel TS, Grace MH, Lila MA, Yahya MA, Omar UM, Alshammary G. LC-MS characterization of bioactive metabolites from two Yemeni Aloe spp. with antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. Arab J Chem. 2020; 13(4): 5041.
2. Kaparakou EH, Kanakis CD, Gerogianni M, Maniati M, Vekrellis K, Skotti E, et al. Quantitative determination of aloin, antioxidant activity, and toxicity of Aloe vera leaf gel products from Greece. J Sci Food Agricult. 2021; 101(2): 414-423.
3. Shekhawat D, Emmanuel BJ, Yeptho B, Gaikwad PG, Inda VS. Aloe vera–A miracle plant for dentistry. J Adv Clin Res Insights. 2021; 8: 94-100.
4. Akbar S. Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae/Xanthorrhoeaceae). Handbook of 200 Medicinal Plants. Springer; 2020. p. 187-206.
5. Kurhekar JV, Bodhankar MG. An antimicrobial wonder plant-Aloe vera. Bionano Front. 2013; 6(3): 49-51.
6. Sánchez M, González-Burgos E, Iglesias I, Gómez-Serranillos MP. Pharmacological update properties of Aloe vera and its major active constituents. Molecules. 2020; 25(6): 1324.
7. Moniruzzaman M, Rokeya B, Ahmed S, Bhowmik A, Khalil M, Gan SH. In vitro antioxidant effects of Aloe barbadensis Miller extracts and the potential role of these extracts as antidiabetic and antilipidemic agents on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic model rats. Molecules. 2012; 17(11): 12851-12867.
8. Bendjedid S, Lekmine S, Tadjine A, Djelloul R, Bensouici C. Analysis of phytochemical constituents, antibacterial, antioxidant, photoprotective activities and cytotoxic effect of leaves extracts and fractions of Aloe vera. Biocatalys Agricult Biotechnol. 2021; 33: 101991.
9. Noor A, Gunasekaran S, Vijayalakshmi M. Improvement of insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with Aloe vera extract. Pharmacogn Res. 2017; 9(Suppl 1): S99.
10. Munir HA, Akbar H, Lateef M, Rashid I, Akhtar R, Nazir J, et al. Anticoccidial activity of different forms of Aloe vera. Indian J Animal Res. 2018; 52(3): 470-473.
11. Abdul Qadir M, Shahzadi SK, Bashir A, Munir A, Shahzad S. Evaluation of phenolic compounds and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of some common herbs. Int J Anal Chem. 2017; 2017.
12. Bista R, Ghimire A, Subedi S. Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activities of Aloe Vera (Aloe Barbadensis). J Nut Sci Heal Diet. 2020; 1(1): 25-36.
13. Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventós RM. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol. 1999; 299: 152-178.
14. Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem. 1999; 64(4): 555-559.
15. Mansouri A, Embarek G, Kokkalou E, Kefalas P. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of the Algerian ripe date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera). Food Chem. 2005; 89(3): 411-420.
16. Vinson JA, Zubik L, Bose P, Samman N, Proch J. Dried fruits: excellent in vitro and in vivo antioxidants. J Am College Nutr. 2005; 24(1): 44-50.
17. Caponio F, Alloggio V, Gomes T. Phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil: influence of paste preparation techniques. Food Chem. 1999; 64(2): 203-209.
18. Abdulqadir A, Cakmak YS, Zengin G. Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant Properties and Enzyme Inhibition Ability of Adiantum capillus veneris L. linked to Alzheimer’s Disease, Diabetes Mellitus and Skin Disorders. Curr Org Chem. 2018; 22(17): 1697-703.
19. NCCLS. Performance standard for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Document. 2003; M100-(S13).
20. Obernier JA, Baldwin RL. Establishing an appropriate period of acclimatization following transportation of laboratory animals. ILAR J. 2006; 47(4): 364-369.
21. Lorke D. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Arch Toxicol. 1983; 54(4): 275-287.
22. Yesilada E, Küpeli E. Clematis vitalba L. aerial part exhibits potent anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007; 110(3): 504-515.
23. Brodowska KM. Natural flavonoids: classification, potential role, and application of flavonoid analogues. Eur J Biol Res. 2017; 7(2): 108-123.
24. Armitage P, Berry G, Matthews JNS. Statistical methods in medical research. John Wiley & Sons; 2008.
25. Stanley MC, Ifeanyi OE, Eziokwu OG. Antimicrobial effects of Aloe vera on some human pathogens. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci. 2014; 3(3): 1022-1028.
26. Miladi S, Damak M. In vitro antioxidant activities of Aloe vera leaf skin extracts. J Soc Chim Tunisie. 2008; 10(10): 101-109.
27. Škerget M, Kotnik P, Hadolin M, Hraš AR, Simonič M, Knez Ž. Phenols, proanthocyanidins, flavones and flavonols in some plant materials and their antioxidant activities. Food Chem. 2005; 89(2): 191-198.
28. Ordóñez-Santos LE, Martínez-Girón J, Arias-Jaramillo ME. Effect of ultrasound treatment on visual color, vitamin C, total phenols, and carotenoids content in Cape gooseberry juice. Food Chem. 2017; 233: 96-100.
29. Jayakumari S, Prabhu K, Rao MRK, Kumaran D, Ramesh A. The GC MS analysis of a rare medicinal plant Aloe barbadensis. J Pharmaceut Sci Res. 2017; 9(7): 1035.
30. López A, De Tangil MS, Vega-Orellana O, Ramírez AS, Rico M. Phenolic constituents, antioxidant and preliminary antimycoplasmic activities of leaf skin and flowers of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (syn. A. barbadensis Mill.) from the Canary Islands (Spain). Molecules. 2013; 18(5): 4942-4954.
31. Nejatzadeh-Barandozi F. Antibacterial activities and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera. Organic Med Chem Lett. 2013; 3(1): 5.
32. Eklund T. Inhibition of microbial growth at different pH levels by benzoic and propionic acids and esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Int J Food Microbiol. 1985; 2(3): 159-167.
33. Wildermuth MC. Variations on a theme: synthesis and modification of plant benzoic acids. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2006; 9(3): 288-296.
34. Widhalm JR, Dudareva N. A familiar ring to it: biosynthesis of plant benzoic acids. Mol Plant. 2015; 8(1): 83-97.
35. Klämbt H. Conversion in Plants of Benzoic Acid to Salicylic Acid and its β d-Glucoside. Nature. 1962; 196(4853): 491.
36. Vinegar R, Schreiber W, Hugo R. Biphasic development of carrageenin edema in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Therap. 1969; 166(1): 96-103.
37. Posadas I, Bucci M, Roviezzo F, Rossi A, Parente L, Sautebin L, et al. Carrageenan‐induced mouse paw oedema is biphasic, age‐weight dependent and displays differential nitric oxide cyclooxygenase‐2 expression. Brit J Pharmacol. 2004; 142(2): 331-238.
How to Cite
Fedoul, F.; Meddah, B.; Larouci, M.; Tir Touil, A.; Merazi, Y.; Cakmak, Y. Phenolic Profile and Biological Activities of Aloe Barbadensis (Miller) from Western Algeria. European Journal of Biological Research 2022, 12, 282-293.
Research Articles