Efficacy of Detarium microcarpum extracts and synergistic effect of combine extract and ivermectin against Caenorhabditis elegans

  • Haladu Ali Gagman School of Biological Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia; Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Bauchi State University Gadau, 751 Itas Gadau, Nigeria
  • Nik Ahmad Irwan Izzaudin Nik Him School of Biological Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
  • Bashir Mohammed Abubakar Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Bauchi State University Gadau, 751 Itas Gadau, Nigeria
  • Hamdan Ahmad School of Biological Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
Keywords: Efficacy, Motility, Inhibition, Concentration, Extracts, Anthelmintic


This work tested the efficacy of crude methanol and aqueous extracts from the stem bark of Detarium microcarpum and the effect of combined extract and ivermectin in vitro against the motility of C. elegans Bristol N2 and C. elegans DA1316 L4 larvae. Series of concentrations (0.2, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/ml) of aqueous and methanolic extracts of D. microcarpum was used for the test. Counting of the motile larvae was carried out after 24 hours and 48 hours. A further test was carried out using a combination of plant extract and ivermectin. Both the aqueous and the methanolic extracts exhibited good anthelmintic activity in the inhibition of larval motility of C. elegans Bristol N2 as well of C. elegans DA1316 with a significant difference at P < 0.05 when compared to the negative control. However, a significant difference occurred between treatment with aqueous and methanolic extract at P < 0.05. The performance of the extracts was concentration and time-dependent. A combination of plant extract and ivermectin prove more potent than the pure extract against both strains of C. elegans. These extracts may be used to control parasitic nematodes including ivermectin resistant type. Treatment using combined plant anthelmintic and synthetic drugs should be encouraged as the combination was more promising. Further studies should be carried on the identification of active compounds in the extracts and studying the mode of action of the drugs on the nematodes and in vivo tests of the extract.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4488096


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How to Cite
Gagman, H.; Him, N.; Abubakar, B.; Ahmad, H. Efficacy of Detarium Microcarpum Extracts and Synergistic Effect of Combine Extract and Ivermectin Against Caenorhabditis Elegans. European Journal of Biological Research 2021, 11, 189-202.
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