Effects of chlorpyrifos on ultimobranchial and parathyroid glands of Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis
This study investigated effects of chlorpyrifos on ultimobranchial (UBG) and parathyroid glands (PTG) of frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis. Frogs were treated with chlorpyrifos for short and long term and sacrificed after 24, 48, 72 or 96 h in short term and after 5.10, 15 and 30 days in long term. Chlorpyrifos exposure provokes decrease in serum calcium levels after 48 h which persists till 96 h. There is slight decrease in the nuclear volume of UBG cells and cytoplasm depict weak staining response after 72 h. After 96 h these changes are more pronounced. PTG of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis exposed to chlorpyrifos exhibit no change till 96 h. Serum calcium decreases on day 10 after chlorpyrifos exposure which continue to fall progressively till 30 days. After 15 days chloryrifos exposure, nuclear volume of UBG exhibit decrease and follicular epithelium displays decrease in height. Follicular epithelium after 30 days chlorpyrifos exposure reduces to the extent that it becomes single layered. Few degenerating cells have been discerned. At this interval nuclear volume of ultimobranchial cells exhibits a further decrease. PTG of chlorpyrifos treated frog depicts increased nuclear volume of PTG at 10 and 15 days. The nuclei of PTG are hyperchromatic and the gland becomes compact at 15 days. After 30 days following chlorpyrifos treatment nuclear volume exhibits further increase. Also degenerating cells make their appearance. Calcium regulating glands UBG and PTG of frogs were adversely affected by exposure to chlorpyrifos which may disturb the physiological functions of the organism.
2. Lari SZ, Khan NA, Gandhi KN, Meshram TS, Thacker NP. Comparison of pesticide residues in surface water and ground water of agriculture intensive areas. J Environ Health Sci Engin. 2014; 12: 11.
3. Srivastava SK, Tiwari PR, Srivastav Ajai K. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the kidney of freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Bull Environ Contamin Toxicol. 1990; 45: 748-751.
4. Scheil V, Zürn A, Köhler HR, Triebskorn, R. Embryo development, stress protein (Hsp70) responses, and histopathology in zebrafish (Danio rerio) following exposure to nickel chloride, chlorpyrifos, and binary mixtures of them. Environ Toxicolo. 2009; 25(1): 83-93.
5. Tripathi S, Srivastav Ajai K. Nephrotoxicity induced by long-term oral administration of different doses of chlorpyrifos. Toxicol Indust Health. 2010; 26: 439-447.
6. Srivastav Ajai K, Srivastav Sanjay K, Tripathi S, Mishra D, Srivastav SK. Chlorpyrifos based commercial formulation: alterations in corpuscles of Stannius of catfish. Int J Environ Health. 2010; 4: 323-332.
7. Xing H, Li S, Wang Z, Gao X, Xu S, Wang X. Histopathological changes and antioxidant response in brain and kidney of common carp exposed to atrazine and chlorpyrifos. Chemosphere. 2012; 88: 377-383.
8. Jin Y, Liu Z, Peng T, Fu Z. The toxicity of chlorpyrifos on the early life stage of zebrafish: A survey on the endpoints at development, locomotor behavior, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015; 43: 405-414.
9. Liendro N, Ferrari A, Mardirosian M, Lascano CI, Venturino A. Toxicity of the insecticide chlorpyrifos to the south american toad Rhinella arenarum at larval developmental stage. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015; 39: 525-535.
10. Kienle C, Köhler HR, Gerhardt A. Behavioural and developmental toxicity of chlorpyrifos and nickel chloride to zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety. 2009; 72: 1740-1747.
11. Zhang Z, Liu Q, Cai J, Yang J, Shen Q, Xu S. Chlorpyrifos exposure in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) leads to oxidative stress and immune responses. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017; 67: 604-611.
12. Srivastav Ajai K, Srivastava S, Srivastav SK, Suzuki N. Acute toxicity of an organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos to an anuran, Rana cyanophlyctis. Iran J Toxicol. 2017; 11: 45-49.
13. Srivastav Ajai K, Srivastava S, Srivastav SK, Faggio C, Sekiguchi T, Suzuki N. Response of ultimobranchial and parathyroid glands of the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis to cadmium toxicity. Iran J Toxicol. 2019; 13(3): 39-44.
14. Srivastav Ajai K, Srivastava SK, Mishra D, Srivastav S, Srivastav SK. Ultimobranchial gland of freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis in response to deltamethrin treatment. Bull Environ Contamin Toxicol. 2002; 68(4): 584-591.
15. Mishra D, Srivastav SK, Srivastav AK. Plasma calcium and inorganic phosphate levels of a teleost Heteropneustes fossilis exposed to metacid-50. Malaysian Appl Biol. 2004; 33(2): 19-25.
16. Mishra D, Srivastav SK, Srivastav Ajai K. Effects of the insecticide cypermethrin on plasma calcium and ultimobranchial gland of the teleost Heteropneustes fossilis. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety. 2005; 60(2): 193-197.
17. Rai R, Mishra D, Srivastav SK, Srivastav Ajai K. Ultimobranchial gland of a freshwater teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis in response to cadmium treatment. Environ Toxicol. 2009; 24(6): 589-593.
18. Prasad M, Kumar A, Srivastav SK, Srivastav Ajai K. Nerium indicum, a botanical pesticide affects ultimobranchial gland of a teleost, Heteropneustes fossilis. Environ Toxicol. 2013; 28(12): 661-665.
19. Peignoux-Deville J, Lopez E, Lallier F, Martelly-Bagot, E, Milet C. Responses of ultimobranchial body in eels (Anguilla anguilla L.) maintained in seawater and experimentally matured to injections of synthetic salmon calcitonin. Cell Tissue Res. 1975; 64(1): 73-83.
20. Wendelaar Bonga SE. Effect of synthetic salmon calcitonin and low ambient calcium on plasma calcium, ultimobranchial cells, Stannius bodies and prolactin cells in the teleost Gasterosteus aculeatus. General Comparat Endocrinol. 1980; 40(1): 99-108.
21. Srivastav SP, Swarup K, Singh S, Srivastav Ajai K. Effect of calcitonin administration on ultimobranchial gland, Stannius corpuscles and prolactin cells in the male catfish, Clarias batrachus. Arch Biol Bruxelles. 1989; 100: 385-392.
22. Srivastav Ajai K, Singh S, Mishra D, Srivastav SK. Ultimobranchial gland of freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis in response to calcitonin administration. Pesquisa Vet Brasil. 2009; 29(12): 963-968.
23. Boschwitz D. The antagonistic effects of exogenous calcitonin and calcium on the ultimobranchial body of Bufo viridis (Amphibia: Anura). J Herpetol. 1973; 7(3): 195-200.
24. Srivastav Ajai K, Rani L. Ultimobranchial body and parathyroid gland of the frog, Rana tigrina in response to calcitonin administration. Biol Struct Morphogen. 1989; 2(4):136-140.
25. Srivastav Ajai K, Rani L. Ultimobranchial body and parathyroid gland of the freshwater snake, Natrix piscator in response to vitamin D3 administration. J Exp Zool. 1992; 262(3): 255-262.
26. Srivastav Ajai K, Srivastava B, Mishra D, Srivastav SK, Suzuki N. Calcitonin induced alterations in the ultimobranchial and parathyroid glands of garden lizard, Calotes versicolor. Turk J Zool. 2011; 35(1): 9-14.
27. Anderson MP, Capen CC. Ultrastructural evolution of parathyroid and ultimobranchial glands in iguanas with experimental nutritional osteodystrophy. General Comparat Endocrinol. 1976; 30(2): 209-222.
28. Srivastav Ajai K, Srivastava Sanjay K, Mishra D, Srivastav SK. Histological alterations in the ultimobranchial gland of teleost Heteropneustes fossilis in response to chlorpyrifos treatment. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2011; 22: 23-28.
29. Pilat-Marcinkiewicz B, Brzoska MM, Moniuszko-Jakoniuk J. Thyroid and parathyroid function and structure in male rats chronically exposed to cadmium. Polish J Environ Stud. 2008; 17(1): 113-120.
30. Tripathi S, Srivastav AK. Alterations in the serum electrolytes, calcitonin cells and parathyroid gland of Wistar rat in response to administration of cadmium. Proc Intern Con Environ Pollut Remediation. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 17-19 August, Paper No. 12, 2011.
31. Tripathi S, Suzuki N, Srivastav AK. Response of serum minerals (calcium, phosphate and magnesium) and endocrine glands (calcitonin cells and parathyroid glands) of Wistar rat after chlorpyrifos administration. Microscopy Res Techn. 2013; 76(7): 673-678.
32. Brzoska M, Moniuszko-Jakoniuk J. Effect of low-level lifetime exposure to cadmium on calcitropic hormones in aged female rats. Arch Toxicol. 2005; 79(11): 636-646.
33. Srivastav Ajai K, Rani L. Mammalian calcitonin cells: Retrospect and prospect. Biol Struct Morphogen. 1988; 1: 117-123.
34. Srivastav Ajai K, Das VK, Srivastav SK, Suzuki N. Amphibian calcium regulation: Physiological aspects. Zoologica Poloniae. 2000; 45: 7-26.
35. Koyama J, Itazawa Y. Effects of oral administration of cadmium on fish. I. Analytical results of the blood and bones. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish. 1977; 43: 523-526.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.