Physiological effects of allelopathic activity of Citrullus colocynthis on Vicia faba and Hordeum vulgare

Hediat Mohamed Salama, Hala Khaled Al Rabiah


The objective of this study was to determine the impact of allelopathic potentials of different extract of Citrullus colocynthis shoot system on germination and metabolite accumulation in Vicia faba and Hordeum vulgare. Citrullus colocynthis was collected from Al-Thomamah region, Saudi Arabia and the experimental design was a complete randomized with three replicates. Water, chloroform and methanol extracts from dried shoot system of Citrullus colocynthis with different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100%) were prepared, in addition to distilled water (as Control). The results showed that great reduce in germination of Hordeum vulgare but Vicia faba was not affected. The seedling growth was more sensitive than the seed germination. The allelopathic effects of Citrullus colocynthis on growth showed slightly increase in shoot and root lengths. The leaf area was decreased in Hordeum and Vicia for all concentrations. Pigments (Chlorophyll A, B and caroteins) were increased in Vicia for all concentrations of extracts, and showed variations in Hordeum compared to control. Results also showed decrease of carbohydrates and increase of proteins for the both studied plants.


Citrullus colocynthis, Allelopathy, Germination, Carbohydrates, Growth, Dry weight

Full Text:



Prasanta C, Bhowmik C, Inderjit A. Challenges and opportunities in implementing allelopathy for natural weed management. Crop Prod. 2003; 22: 661-671.

Gawronska H, Burza W, Bolesta E, Malepszy S. Zygote and Somatic embryos of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) substantially in their levels of abscisic acid. Plant Sci. 2000; 157: 129-137.

Gawronska SW. Allelopathy as a strategy for weed control in organic farming. Acta Physiol. 2003; 25: 24-30.

Chon SU, Kim YM, Lee JC. Herbicidal potential and quantification of causative allelochemicals from several Compositae weeds. Weeds Res. 2003; 43: 444-450.

Gholami BA, Faravani M, Kashki MT. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract from Artemesia kopetdaghensis and Satureja hortensison growth and seed germination of weeds. J Appl Environ Biol Sci. 2011; 1(9): 283-290.

AL Rabiah HK. Allelopathic effects of Citrullus colocynthis extracts on the germination and growth of some plants. M.SC. Thesis, King Saud University. Faculty of Science, Botany and Microbiology Department. 2012.

An M, Johnson IR, Lovett IR. Mathematical modeling of allelopathy: biological response to allelochemicals and its interpretation. J Chem Ecol. 1993; 19: 2379-2388.

Wardle DA, Nilsson M, Gallet C, Zackrisson O. An ecosystem - level perspective allelopathy. Biol Rev. 1998; 73: 305-319.

Dalton BR. The occurrence and behavior of plant phenolic acids in soil environment and their potentials involvements in allelochemical interference interactions: methodological limitations in establishing conclusive proof of allelopathy. In: Inderjit KM, Dakshini M, Foys CL, eds. Principles and practices in plant ecology: Allelochemical interactions.1999: 57-74

Berhow MA, Voughn SF. Higher plant flavonoids: biosynthesis and chemical ecology. In: Inderjit KM, Dakshini M, Foys CL, eds. Principles and practices in plant ecology: Allelochemical interactions.1999: 423-438.

Jose S, Gillespie A. Allelopathy in black walnut (Juglans nigral) allely cropping. II. Effects of Juglone on hydoponically grown corn (Zea mays L.) and soyabean (Glycine max L. Merr.) growth and Physiology. Plant Soil. 1998; 203: 199-205.

Langenheim JH. Higher plant terpenoids: a phytocentric overview of their ecological roles. J Chem Ecol. 1994; 20: 1223-1280.

Chaves N, Escudero C. Effect of allelopathic compounds produced by Cistus ladenifer on germination of 20 Mediterranean taxa. Plant Ecol. 2006; 184: 259-272.

Khanh D, Xuan TD, Chung IM. Rice allelopathy and the possibility for weed management. Ann Appl Biol. 2007; 151: 325- 339.

Chaudhary SA. Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Ministry of Agriculture and Water. Riyadh. 1999.

Karthikeyan A, Shanthi V, Nagasathaya A. Preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial screening of crude extract of the leaf of Adhatoda vasica L. Int J Green Pharm. 2009; 3: 78-80.

Salama HMH. Alkaloids and flavonoids from the air dried aerial parts of Citrullus colocynthis. J Med Plants Res. 2012; 6(38): 5150-5155.

Senger C, Sturm S, Mair ME, Ellmerer EP, Stuppner H. 1H and 13CNMR signal assignment of cucurbitacin derivatives from Citrullus colcoynthis (L.) Schrader and Ecballium elaterium (L.) (Cucurbitaceae). Magn Reson Chem. 2005; 43(6): 489-491.

Gordon MC, David JN. Natural product drug discovery in the next millennium. Pharm Biol. 2001; 39: 8-17.

Sunil K, Dinesh K, Manjusha M, Kamal S, Hidhan S, Bhoodev V. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. methanolic fruit extract. Acta Pharm. 2008; 58: 215-220.

Karim A, Nouman M, Munir S, Sattar S. Pharmacology and phytochemistry of Pakistani herbs and herbal drugs used for treatment of diabetes. Int J Pharmacol. 2011; 7: 419-439.

Rahbar AR, Nabipour I. The hypolipidemic effect of Citrullus colocynthis on patients with hypertipidemia. Pak J Biol Sci. 2010; 13: 1202-1207.

Chanda S, Dave R, Kaneria M. In vitro antioxidant property of some Indian medicinal plants. Res J Med Plant. 2011; 5: 169-179.

Hernandez M, Lopez R, Abanas RM, Paris V, Arias A. Antimicrobial activity of Visnea mocanera leaf extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. 1994; 41: 115-119.

Ladd JL, Jacobson M, Buriff CR. Japanes beetles extracts from neem tree seeds as feeding deterents. J Econ Entomol. 1978; 71: 810-813.

Russo VM, Webber CL, Myers DL. Kenaf extract effects germination and post-germination development of weed; grass and vegetable seeds. Indust Crops Prod.1997; 6: 59-69.

Stirban M. Procese primare in fotosinteza (in Romanian), Ed. Didact. Sipedag, Bucharest, Romania, 1985.

Nelson N. A photometric adaption of the Somogyi method for the determination of glucose. J Biol Chem. 1944; 153: 375-380.

Somogyi M. Note on sugar determination. J Biol Chem. 1952; 195:19-25.

Lowery O, Rosebrough N, Farr A, Randall R. protin measurement with the folinphenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 1951; 193: 263-275.

Abd El-Fattah RI, Abou-Zeid AM, Altalhi AD. Allelopathic effects of Artemisia princeps and Launae sonchoids on rhizospheric fungi and wheat growth. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2011; 5(4): 419-424.

Seyed M, Moussavi N, Mohammed HBK, Ali BG. Artemisia annua on germination and early growth of Isabgol (Plantago ovate). Ann Biol Res. 2011; 2(6): 687-691.

Mahmood D, Sedighe S, Resa A. Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus globules Labill. on seed germination and seedling growth of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Int J Farming Allied Sci. 2014; 3(1): 81-86.

Abhinav AM, Kanade MB. Allelopathic effect of two common weeds on seed germination, root-shoot length, biomass and protein content of jowar. Ann Biol Res. 2014; 5(3): 89-92.

Malik MS. Effect of aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus globules on germination and seedling of potato, maize and bean. Allelopathy J. 2004; 14: 213-220.

El-Khawas SA, Shehata MM. The allelopathic potentialities of Acacia nilotica and Eucalyptus rostrata on monocot (Zea mays L.) and dicot (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plants Biotechnol. 2005; 4(1): 23-34.

Yamagushi MQ, Gusman GS, Vestana S. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of Eucalyptus globules Labill on crops. Semina Ciencias Agrarias Londrina. 2011; 32(4): 13561-1374.

Djanaguiraman M, Vaidyanathan R, Anniesheeba J, Durgadevi D, Bangatusamy U. Physiological responses of Eucalyptus globulus leaf leachate on seedling physiology of rice, sorghum and blackgram. Int J Agric Biol. 2005; 7(1): 35-38.

Ziaebrahimi L, Khavari-Nejad RA, Fahimi H, Nejadsatari T. Effects of aqueous eucalyptus extracts on seed germination, seedling growth and activities of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase in three wheat cultivar seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.). Pak J Biol Sci. 2007; 10: 3415-3419.

Corsato JM, Fortes AMT, Santorum M, Leszeynski R. Efedtoalelopathico do extratoaquoso de folhas de girasol sobre a germinacao de soja e picao-pretio. Ciencias Agrarias Londrina, 2010; 31: 353-360.

Gliessman R. Agroecologia: processos ecologicos em agricultura sustentavel. Porto Alegre UFRGS, 2000.

El-Darier SM. Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus rostrata on growth, nutrient uptake and metabolite accumulation of Vicia faba L. and Zea mays L. Pak J Biol Sci. 2002; 5(1): 6-11.

Pandey DK, Mishra N. Relative phytotoxicity of an allelochemicalical hydroquinone to coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.). In: Proceeding and selected papers of the fourth world congress on Allelopathy, Charles Sturt University. Wagga NSW, Australia, 2005.

EL-Khatib AA, Hegazy AK. Growth and physiological responses of wild Oats allelopathic potential of wheat. Acta Agronom Hungar. 1999; 47(1): 11-18.


  • There are currently no refbacks.