Evaluation of the effect of smoking on periodontal disease and its response to non-surgical treatment: a randomized controlled trial

Shahabe Saquib Abullais


This prospective clinical study was designed to evaluate clinically the effect of smoking on periodontal disease and its response to non-surgical treatment. Fifty patients fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into Group 1 with 25 smokers, and Group 2 with 25 non-smokers (control). At baseline all the subjects received periodontal examination. Supragingival and subgingival scaling using ultrasonic tips and root planing using curettes were performed at the initial visit. The following clinical parameters were selected for the evaluation at baseline, 1 month, 2 months and 3 months: Probing Depth (PD), Gingival Recession (GR), Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI) and Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) volume measurement. The results showed that: 1. smokers had significantly greater PD, GR and PI as compared to controls, 2. smokers had significantly lesser GI scores than controls indicating suppressed inflammation, 3. smokers had lesser GCF scores than non-smokers indicating suppressed inflammation. In conclusion, due to deleterious effects of tobacco on periodontal tissues, it seems important that tobacco cessation therapy should be emphasized to smokers and tobacco chewers requiring such treatment.


Periodontal disease; Non-surgical therapy; Smoker; Non-smoker; Response to therapy

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